استفاده از سخنرانی‌های آنلاین برای پشتیبانی از یادگیری فعال

 
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[MUSIC] >> In this case study we examine how
teachers can use online lectures to support active learning, and improve student understanding of class
content. Dr. Daniel Southam, an Associate Professor
of Mauro Mocerino of Curtin University. Use a combination of clicker questioning,
and supporting online lectures in their first year pharmacy course, to help
engage and improve student learning. In this episode, we examine the benefits
of this approach, and offer some useful tips when
using these strategies. >> So the course we are going to be
looking at today is a first year pharmacy course, it is called Introduction to
Pharmaceutical Chemistry. About 140, are in this class. The format is face to face, but with
online support. The face to face class uses an active learning strategy, I don't give any
didactic lectures. The whole reason for going to a different
approach to teaching, is born out of a dissatisfaction with the current passive
learning strategy, and with the desire to improve student
understanding. >> I apply the, this active learning strategies in both my major first year
classes. In first semester it's a pharmacy group,
and in second semester they're the chemist,
chemical engineers. I do it because I think it supports their
learning, and improves their learning. I'm not here to make life easy for them, but I do want to make their learning
better. >> We use a pedagogy called process
oriented guided inquiry learning. We use a prompt such as clicker
questioning. We record some mini lectures using a, a
screen capture software, which is used as a backup to the
activity in class, just to get them working toward
the activity, engaging with the content, and hopefully
learning something along the way. [BLANK_AUDIO] The clicker itself just involves a
multiple choice response. We use turning point keypads. When the polling is open, a little window
comes up on the screen that shows them a number of
responses. >> If I have a spread of answers, with the
clickers I will get them to re-vote, discuss amongst themselves,
and try and convince their neighbors that their answer
is right. >> And the clicker software will actually
allows them to change their response. [BLANK_AUDIO] Because I don't give that transmission of
information in the classroom, I have an underlying concern that other
students might be missing out. Either they have missed a concept or
interpreted it incorrectly and so just as a feedback mechanism and to really
close the loop for those students. We give them nice mini lectures online. It doesn't replace actually doing the
activity, or attending the lecture, or doing the clicker questions, it's just
as a support mechanism. So, within our lecture notes section here,
on, blackboard, the clicker questions that have just been given in the class go
up as a pdf. They are, these particular section has
lectures. >> So let me look at reactivity there are two possible measure of whether a reaction
will actually occur. The first is thermodynamics, and this tells us whether the process is
spontaneous. >> I use a piece of desktop capture
software called Echo 360. It's linked directly into our lecture
system. These are the ones that I've already
prepared, and so when you actually record the process, it'll just take a capture of
the actual screen that you're seeing. Once that's done, you come up with, a
recording itself, which looks like this, and so you can actually go
through and just check. And then you just publish the recording,
log in to the iLecture database uploads it
automatically. So yeah, I'm using the iLectures and, and
the information and the clicker questions in class, and giving to
them in that passive format online. That's, that's a powerful thing. The benefit is that I can have the confidence that the students have the
information. >> I think that iLectures were actually
really helpful, they are really clear, and, yeah you can really
understand them really well. >> I think it's good because if you
haven't, by any chance haven't attended the lecture
you can listen to it, and get the idea instead of reading
their logs, which is not effective as listening
to the lectures. >> When I gave the question, a clicker question, and I have a spread of answers,
and I ask the students to then, without
telling them what the right answer was, discuss with
your colleagues. I always get a better second vote without
explanation from me. >> So is good to have the clicker
question, we can see if we, we're going the right way in
the activities. >> I think it's actually helpful that we
can work in groups, and talk to each other, and see if we can come up
with a better answer. >> They know how they're supposed to
think, they recognize that they don't need to fully understand
it before they start. Their understanding will come by the time
they get to the end. >> Any time, in a lecture, somebody gives an example, that example can be turned
around. So in a passive learning environment, you
would talk them through how to approach that example, and
then show it. Within the process oriented guided inquiry
learning, what happens is, you actually flip it around, give them the example, and then get them to interrogate that, that example,
that model. And arrive at the understanding
themselves. What concepts do I really want them to
cover in this class, and then that really does scaffold the
presentation post lectures, I mean the lecture online. During the lecture also I'll make note of
where I think they're struggling, what they might
need, to further examples. I try then the week following to make sure
the iLectures are available. It shouldn't be a significant work load. Certainly if you can try and at least try
to frame the questions that you want to answer in the mini lectures specifically,
it can cut down the number of student inquiries about
the concept. >> The students didn't react very well at
the beginning. They felt fairly uncomfortable, and it, it
did require a bit of explanation on the psychology of
learning, and how people learn. Because a lot of students have not, a lot of people haven't thought about how they
actually learn things. >> Lecture theater looks and feels very
different to what they're used to. That given the opportunity to talk or
encourage to talk, and actually do something in the
lecture. And so for that class it might be
something that they've never seen before. >> I find not having the lec, lecture,
real lecture challenging sometimes we just go straight to activities and it's really hard to, because we don't have any
background. >> I think it has improved my results,
because I'm more active, than like just looking at the teacher,
listening to him or her. >> Their understanding of the concepts are
improved, and they get it better by working through
these things. But it takes a little bit longer at the
beginning, because they're learning the process of
working it out for themselves. >> And so by giving them that online support, you're giving them the
confidence that the concept that they've built up by
themselves with minimum intervention from me, is
actually correct. >> Not only do they work it out for
themselves, they develop confidence in their own
ability to work something out. And I think the confidence is also an
important aspect. [BLANK_AUDIO]

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