بلوک‌های ساختمان

00:00 / 00:00


گزارش خرابی

برای دسترسی به زیرنویس این جلسه باید وارد حساب کاربری خود شوید.

[MUSIC] Writing an academic text is an enormous
task that entails learning the vocabulary. The complete vocabulary, or dictionary, of the English language contains
around 55,000 word families. A word family includes the base of a word,
its inflected forms, and closely related derived forms. For example, research, Researching. Researcher. Researched. Researchable. And many others. A five year old child native speaker
of English has a vocabulary range of 4,000 to 5,000 word families. An average university student has a
vocabulary range of 17,000 word families. And the university graduate,
around 20,000. According to some estimates,
native speakers add approximately 1,000 words families per year
to their vocabulary size. Thus, for adult learners of English,
the gap between their vocabulary size and that of native speakers,
is usually very large. Because adult learners, who have
typically dedicated several years to language learning, have a vocabulary
size of much less than 5,000 words. It is possible, however, as in case of
educated non-native speakers, to achieve a significant growth in English vocabulary
with persistent and consistent effort. Thus, the task of becoming a proficient
user of English academic vocabulary may not be attainable within the time
commonly considered reasonable for the completion of your academic studies. A more reasonable and attainable goal in
increasing the vocabulary range in your writing is to work with word families,
synonyms, lexical chunks or lexical strings that you can use in
constructing your academic texts. The most important issues in
learning academic vocabulary is its extraordinary large size. And another factor that greatly
complicates the learning of the English academic vocabulary, is that it is not
common words that create the greatest difficulties in reading and writing,
but that relatively rare words that actually represent the largest number of
words used even in basic academic text. The quickest and easiest way to increase
your vocabulary is to analyze and understand how words are made
up of different parts. And once you learn the building
blocks with which words are made, many previously unknown words can
become meaningful and useful. English has thousands of words
that are built up from two or more distinct units, roots and affexis. Affexis are further subdivided according
to their position into prefixes and suffixes, and
according to their function and meaning. When an affex is stripped from the word,
what remains is a root. For example, the word,
hearty, has the root, and this root may be represented as heart. A root may be defined as the part
of the word that remains unchanged throughout its paradigm. A root is regarded as the ultimate
constituent element that remains after the removal of all the functional and
derivational affixes, and does not admit any further analysis. It is the common element of
words within a word family. Thus, heart is the common root of
the full-length series of words. Heart. Hearten. Dishearten. Heartbroken. Whole-heartedly. Sweetheart, Heartless. Hearted, and many others. In this case, we have the root heart. In some cases, we have prefix and suffix. In some cases, we have two roots. And this is a compound. Where two words become one. The difference between suffixes and
prefixes is not confined to their respective position, suffixes being fixed
after, and prefixes fixed before the root. It also concerns their function and
meaning. A suffix follows the root and
forms a new word (derivative) in a different part of speech or
a different class. Same is an adjective,
and sameness is a noun. Face is a noun, and
faceless is an adjective. A prefix stands before the root and
modifies the meaning. For example, to hearten or to dishearten. It is normally with verbs and
adjectives that a prefix may serve to distinguish one
part of speech from another. Like in earth as a noun, and
unearth as a verb, or sleep as a noun, and asleep as an adjective. Prefixes modify the lexical meaning
of the root, but in doing so, they seldom affect its basic
lexical grammatical component. Therefore, both the simple word and its prefixed derivative mostly
belong to the same part of speech. For example, the prefix mis,
when added to verbs, can be the meaning wrongly,
badly unfavorably. It does not suggest any other
part of speech but the verb. For example, lead and mislead. It should be noted that prefixation in
English is chiefly characteristic of verbs and words with the verbal roots. When you know the base word,
you can easily crack the code of all the other words
that belong to a particular word family. And when you learn a new
word at the same time, try to learn all the other
members of the word family. For example, part is a noun. The adjective partial and the verb participate belong
to the same word family. This will help you read
with greater understanding. Most suffixes are classified according to
the part of speech they serve to form. Root plus suffix forms a new word. In a different part of speech. Another essential feature of
affixes is their combining power. It is, of course,
impossible to describe the whole system. But to make my point clear,
I will take adjectives as an example. The adjective-forming suffixes
are mostly attached to noun roots, which are also called stamps. And they are, for example,
ed as in the word saved, en golden, ful careful,
less careless, ly manly, like childlike, or
y in the word hearty and some others. The highly productive suffix able
can be combined with noun stems and verbal stems, alike, for
example, clubbable or bearable. It is especially frequent in the pattern
when you have prefix un plus verbal stem plus suffix able, and
then you have the word unbearable. In order to increase
your academic vocabulary, you must know all of the typical patterns
on which these words are coined. To achieve this, it is necessary to know not only
the units of which the words consist, but also their regular combinations and
the relations existing between them.

دانلود با کیفیت بالا
دانلود با حجم کم
دانلود زیرنویس