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[MUSIC] It is believed by many scholars
that words shape our reality. Determine what we see and what we do
not see, mold our points of view and guide our eyes. Words shape our reality because they carry
cultural meanings and interpretations. Learning a specific vocabulary for
a given academic field involves learning the technical
terminology, the field employs and learning about the world as seen or
interpreted by that particular field. When you begin learning the language
of your research, you must acquire new terminology regardless how obscure or
confusing it may sound. Mastering new terminology, as well
as they embedded cultural meanings, happens slowly and
through exposure to what we did. Classic text, technical reports,
conference proceedings or original research articles. In addition, it is not until we
use the new terminology ourselves that we know we have captured the new
concepts with all their complexity. It is when we use the new terminology
in our writing therefore, that we determined how much we truly
crossed on our own discipline. As you gradually master the new
vocabulary in your respective field, you find that it becomes easier
to write about certain topics. But if you do not continually challenge
yourselves to learn new words, to try new ways to say the same old things,
your writing eventually becomes boring. That's why acquiring new vocabulary and mastering your lexical competence should
be your academic life long pursuit. However, it should not
be a stressful pursuit. It can be done in micro-doses
when you learn language chunks. Memorizing language chunks represents an effective strategy to expand
your lexical and grammatical range. Collocational chunks can consist
of entire memorised sentences or phrases that include from 4 to 10 words. And this can allow you to create new constructions to add to your
collection of expressions. In this sense, noun phrases,
we discussed in the previous video, can be viewed as big words and
memorized as lexical stems. Recent research on this of very
specific authors writing for publication in English has found
that re-using language from other papers in the same
field is a common strategy. But there is considerable discussion about
when it is acceptable to re-use language. And when it can considered
as textual plagiarism? What seems clear is that for science writing, there is a difference in
the way people think about the content, the science and the way they think about
the language used to express the content. The originality of the work is sent
mostly to reside in the content, the data and their analysis and
interpretation. However, this citation is somewhat
different in the humanities and social sciences. When the language itself is
said to form the argument and therefore the content of the writing. Nevertheless, the very clear convention
in academic writing in English, is that to avoid
the suspicion of plagiarism, authors should use their own words
to paraphrase the findings or conclusions of other researchers, as well
as citing the source of the information. In this video, I suggest a way in which you can be more confident
about avoiding inappropriate language re-use while still taking advantage of
the effective writing of other authors. This option involves the construction
of sentence templates for later re-use. We do this by separating the structure or
framework of a sentence from discipline specific content including the
noun phrases, to understand this concept. First, read the purpose statement quoted
from an article written by Lee and his co-workers in 2000. If you cross out all
the simply specific content, what remains is a series of frameworks
that will call center templates, the framework or
template would looks like this. You would only this template
if it enabled you to express the meanings you
were trying to make. I would suggest that you continue to
identify relevant sentence templates for yourself, whenever you
read a research paper for your work in order to
add to your repertoire. I suggest that to take
an extra ten minutes or so after you have read the paper for
its content. Use this time to identify any
useful sentence templates and break up them in a special file or
notebook. It may be useful to organize these notes
according to the section of the paper where the sentence
template would be useful. To practice identifying relevant sentence
templates for yourself, I would recommend you to find the introduction paragraph in
any research article of your choice and draft sentence templates, that you could
use while writing your own article.

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