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[MUSIC] These are the main word
formation processes. Derivation, Preserve, as a verb, and you form a noun. Suffix, back-formation. You have the word babysitter,
And you form a verb, to babysit. Conversion, When one word, part of speech becomes another part of speech
like heat as a noun and to heat as a verb. Compounding When two words become one, like work + force, you have workforce. Clippings As in the word laboratory. You delete part of the word and
you'll have lab. Blending. When you take the beginning of one word,
say, web, and the end of the other word, Seminar, and you'll have webinar. Abbreviations, Say, www ,Worldwide web, or acronym like NATO. And acronym is different from abbreviation
because it is pronounced as one word. And when it is pronounced as one word
like NATO, it's not an abbreviation. Abbreviation, you pronounce,
in abbreviation, you pronounce each letter separately, www. And then, you have borrowings,
As the word, Or I can, which come from
the Russian language, and then, we have eponyms Like Watt. A person after whom an invention or
discovery was made and everyone knows what a Watt is. In the previous lecture,
we discussed derivation as one of the most productive word
formation processes in English. In this video lecture, I will speak about
two more word forming processes, which, in my opinion, are important for
academic reading and writing. Conversion and compounding. Conversion is the word formation process
in which a word of one grammatical form becomes a word of another grammatical
form without any changes to spelling and sometimes, pronunciation. For example, the noun email appeared
in English before the verb. A decade ago, I would have sent you
an email as a noun, whereas now, I can send you an email noun or
simply email you. And is this case, email is the verb. So, the original noun email
experienced conversion, thus, resulting in the new verb email,
or to email. The most productive form of conversion
in English is noun to verb conversion. The following list provides examples
of verbs converted from nouns. Noun to verbs. So, heat to heat. Or alloy becomes a verb to alloy. Or sample, To sample. In that productive form of conversion
in English is verb to noun conversion. And the fold in this provides examples
of noun converted from verbs. Verb To nouns. Like to clone and you have clone. To cover, cover. To feel as a verb and feel as a noun. To rise, And rise as a noun. And we may have a sentence. We need To increase Our productivity. To see an increase in profits. So, we have the verb to increase. And then, noun, an increase, and that's
conversion as a word formation process. Conversion also occurs,
although less frequently, to and from other grammatical forms. For example, adjectives to verbs Like green as an adjective
becomes a verb to green, to make something
environmentally friendly. Or a preposition. All prepositions can become nouns. For example, prepositions up, down, say, the ups and downs of life. Conjunctions, Can become nouns, For example if, the conjunction and, but can become if, ifs, ands, and buts. And then, I may say, no ifs, no ands, not buts, you simply need
to acquire academic vocabulary. Or interjection. Interjections can also become nouns. So, an interjection, ho. And then, you may have a sentence like, I love
the ho ho house of the Christmas time. Compounding is the word formation
process in which two or more lexemes, or base forms,
combine into a single new word. Compound nouns may be written as one word
or as two words joined with a hyphen. Noun plus noun, As in the word note, or adjective plus noun, and the word blueberry. Verb plus noun becomes work as a verb, workroom. Noun plus verb becomes, say, breastfeed. Or verb plus verb become stir-fry. In this case, this word is hyphened,
written with the hyphen. Verb plus preposition, as in the word breakup. Preposition plus verb, out plus run, outrun. Adjective plus adjective can become a word bittersweet. Or prepositions plus preposition, and you have two prepositions in and to, and you have one preposition into. Compounds maybe compositional. Meaning that the meaning of the new word
is determined by combining the meanings of the parts or noncompositional,
meaning that the meaning of the new work cannot be determined
by combining the meanings of the parts. For example,
a blueberry is a berry that is blue. However, a breakup is not
a relation that was severe into pieces in an upward direction. Compound nouns should not be confused
with nouns modified by adjectives, verbs, or other nouns. For example, the adjective black
of the noun phrase black bird is different from the adjective black
of the compound noun blackbird. In that, black of black bird
functions as a noun phrase modifier, while the black of blackbird is
an inseparable part of the noun. A black bird also refers to any
bird that is black in color, while a blackbird is a typical,
or specific type of bird.

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