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[MUSIC] Nominalisation is the use
of word that is not a noun. For example, a verb, an adjective or
an adverb as a noun or as the head of the noun phrase with or
without morphological transformations. The term nomalisation can also refer
specifically to the process of producing a noun from another part of speech via
the addition of derivational affixes. For example, tion, ment, ity and so on. These are examples of nomalisations, pollution, communication. Intensity. Applicability. Academic authors frequently use
norminalisations to provide useful links back to the previous sentences
in order to express an idea or a concept more precisely. The forces which operate to encourage
norminalisation are understandable. Dealing continually in concept, scientific writers tend to isolate
activities, such as experimenting, measuring or analyzing as extra
conceptual units in their minds. They are also pushed towards passive
constructions both by tradition or by their own desire to step aside and
allow their work to speak for itself. These forces produce
characteristic constructions, such as a similar experiment was
carried out using the material, or a sigma preparation was
carried out as described. For example- They are developing A new method to find Tumor cells in the blood. The method development Can take months. We use this nominalised verb, develop. So we nominalise the verb develop
in the previous sentence and we use this nominalisation and
that's a compound, which is the subject of this sentence and
it refers to the first, previous sentence. Nominalisation may be a subject
that refers to a previous sentence. The nominalisation names what
would be the object of its verb. For example, I don't understand either
her meaning or his intention or I don't understand either what
she means or what he intends. A succinct nominalisation can
replace the phrase, the fact that. For example, the fact that I denied what
he accused me of impressed the jury. We can change this sentence into this one. My denial of his accusations
impressed the jury. But when I denied his accusations,
I impressed the jury. Some nominalisations refer
to often-repeated concepts. Some nominalisations name ideas we
can express only in nominalisations. For example, taxation, amendment,
election, revolution, freedom, death, love, hope. Once recognized,
nominalisation is easy to correct. Whenever you see general-purpose verbs,
such as carry out, perform, undertake or conduct,
we'll put a word that names the action. Turning the name of the activity back into
a verb, preferably in the active voice, will undo the nominalisation and make the
sentence more direct and easier to read. These are some examples that show
how to avoid nominalisations. A need exists for
more efficient candidate selection. We must select candidate more efficiently. There is a possibility of prior approval. He may approve of it ahead of time. The establishment of a different approach
on the part of the committee has become a necessity. The committee must approach it differently
or our request is that on your return, you conduct a review of date and
provide an immediate report. We request that when you return, you
review the date and report immediately. How can we support and
revise the nominalisations? When the nominalisation follows
a general purpose verb, change the nominalisation to a verb that
can replace this general purpose verb. For example, the police conducted
an investigation of the matter. The police investigated the matter. When a nominalisation follows there is,
there are, change the nominalisation into a verb and
find the subject. There was considerable erosion
of the land from the floods. The floods considerably eroded the land. When the nominalisation is the subject
of a general purpose verb, change the nominalisation to a verb and
find a new subject. Our intention is to audit
the records of the program. We intend to audit
the records of the program. When you find two
nominalisations in a row, make at least the first into a verb,
then either leave the second as it is or turn it into a verb in a clause
beginning with how or why. For example, there was first a review
of the evolution of the dorsal fin. First, she reviewed
the evolution of the dorsal fin. Or first,
she reviewed how the dorsal fin evolved. We have to revise most extensively
when a nominalisation is a subject and the subject is linked to another
nominalisation in the predicate. How can we fix nominalisations? Let's consider the following construction. So, subject. Logical connections. And object. So and the sentence could be. The cessation Sorry. Of the hostilities Was because of Personnel losses. In the sentence, we have two nominalised
verbs, cessation and losses. How can we reconstruct this? The first step would be, you change the abstractions to verbs. Cessation becomes cease and
losses Is loss, then you find a new
subject to these verbs. You say, they, for example, cease and they lost and what do you have? They Ceased hostilities. Because They lost personnel. In this case, we have the subject,
that's the logical connection and that's what happens to the object,
it becomes a clause. Science writing should be credible and
concrete. We show the reader our data and
we show our readers our logic with a sentence showing logic and
action is the job of verbs. Good writers use verbs well,
because English is a verb-driven language. A strong verb energizes writing. That is why you should not over burden
your writing with nominalisation. Sometimes, however,
nominalisations can be useful. When the nominalisation is familiar to
your reader, when you're making a general statement that focuses more on the idea or
the concept rather than the action. When you need to emphasize products and results, rather than the processes by
which products and results are achieved.

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