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[MUSIC] You can acquire academic vocabulary
in relationship to concepts. If you understand the concept, any unknown words will be given meaning
if the word is already understood. In other words,
if the concept is not understood, the word's meaning will be
forgotten within a few days. Concept maps provide
unique graphic tools for organizing, connecting, and
synthesizing information. Concept maps can give you an opportunity
to think about the connections between the science terms that you are learning,
organize your thoughts. And visualize the relationships between
key concepts in a systematic way and reflect on your understanding. Concept mapping naturally
integrates literacy and science by providing a starting point for
writing about science. Concept maps are based on
statements about some object or event in the universe, which is a concept,
either naturally occurring or constructed. These statements are called propositions. The most important propositions
describe relationships that reflect the main ideas
contained in your field. Propositions contain two or more concepts
connected using linking words or phrases to form a meaningful statements. Propositions are not limited to
connecting only two concepts. However, when constructing concept maps,
we strive to keep propositions as short as possible,
preferably connecting only two concepts. In this concept map, length of day and
summer are concepts, and is longer in are linking words. And together, they form the proposition,
length of day is longer in summer. In the same figure, the proposition,
height of sun above horizon is determined by a 23 point degrees tilt of axis of
earth, is composed of the concepts, height of sun above horizon and
23.5 degrees tilt of axis of earth. Together with the linking words,
is determined by, the proposition 23 point degrees
tilt of axis of earth points towards the sun in summer is
composed of three concepts, 23 point degrees tilts of axis
of earth towards the sun and summer and two linking phrases, points in. These are the main components of concept
maps, nodes which represents concepts. Lines which represent
relations between concepts, labels on the lines, which describe
the nature of the relationship, arrowheads which indicate
direction of the relationship. Hierarchical concept maps represent
information in a descending order of importance with the key
concept being at the top of the map and subordinate concepts falling below. Non-hierarchical maps represent
information in the cluster or network pattern. The hierarchical structure for
a particular domain of knowledge depends on the context in which that
knowledge is being applied or considered. Therefore, it is best to construct
concept maps with reference to some particular question you seek
to answer, a focus question. A focus question is a question that
clearly specifies the problem or issue the concept map
should have to resolve. Every concept map responds
to a focus question, and a good focus question can lead
to much richer concept maps. Given a selected domain and a defined
question or problem on this domain, the next step is to identify the key
concepts that apply to this domain. Usually 15 to 25 concepts will suffice. These concepts could be listed. And then from this list, a rank ordered
list should be established from the most general, most inclusive
concept for this particular problem or citation to the most specific,
least general concept. Although this rank order
may only be approximate, it helps to begin the process
of map construction. How to create a concept map, start with
a main idea, topic, or issue to focus on. A helpful way to determine
the context of your concept map is to choose a focus question,
something that needs to be solved or a conclusion that needs to be reached. Once a research question is decided on,
that will help you, the hierarchical structure
of the concept map. Then, determine the key concepts. Find the key concepts that connect and
relate to your main idea and bring them. Most general inclusive
concepts come first, then link to smaller
more specific concepts. Finish by connecting concepts
creating linking phrases and words. Once the basic links between the concepts
are created, add crosslinks which connect concepts in different areas of the map to
further illustrate the relationships and strengthen your understanding and
knowledge on the topic.

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