ترکیب جمله و علائم نگارشی

 
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[MUSIC] Effective academic writing is strengthened
by the use of sentence of varying length. Very short sentences for emphasis and
long sentences which often describe interspersed with sentences of ordinary
length, the majority of sentences. The structure of individual
sentences is also varied including sentences with semicolons to
join short related sentences. Coordinate conjunctions to
join two related sentences. An independent and a dependent clause to
show relationships between important and less important information. And parallel structures to add rhythm and
tone to the writing. Sentence combining is not
simply a language exercise. It is a skill to be practiced, and
integrated into the writer's style. Too many short sentences can
result in a choppy paragraph. Too many long sentences,
may confuse the reader and make your writing
incomprehensibly academese. Effective, coherent academic writing combines some short sentences
with appropriate punctuation. In order to combine
sentences successfully, you should understand the concept
of phrases and clauses in English. And learn a proper punctuation
of combined sentences. One way to vary sentences structures,
is to join to related independent clauses. Each of the independent clauses is equal
in importance in the joined sentence. There are two ways to join
the independent clauses. Using your semicolon with
an optional structure word. Or using your comma and
the required coordinate conjunction. The semicolon is placed between
two independent clauses. It can be used only between
two independent clauses that are related in content and
in purpose. An optional conjunction adverb
following the semicolon, and usually followed by a comma,
can make the sentence more coherent by demonstrating the relationship
between the two independent clauses. The table gives examples of
optional structure verb and their relationships they demonstrate
between independent clauses. Notice the comma that
follows each structure word. A comma and the coordinating
conjunction are placed between two independent clauses that are related
in content and in purpose. The table lists example and examples
of the coordinating conjunctions and their relationships they demonstrate
between independent clauses. Notice the comma that
proceeds each conjunction. To join to independent clauses, use both
a comma and a coordinating conjunction. To join an independent clause and
a phrase in brackets, use the coordinating
conjunction without the comma. Words that introduce a dependent clause
are called subordinate conjunctions. Because the dependent clause
cannot stand by itself, it must be joined to
an independent clause. In the joined sentence, the dependent
clause is weaker, less important clause. The table shows some of the subordinating
conjunctions and the relationships that show between the dependent clause and
the independent clause. If you think of punctuation as
relatively unimportant, think again. Appropriate punctuation helps the reader. In addition, a change in punctuation
can change the meaning of a sentence. Punctuation, from comma
to quotation marks, from semicolons to dashes,
serves a critical function in English. In writing, it is the only substitute for all the messages that the spoken
word can convey through intonation, pitch, volume, sarcasm,
humor and gesticulation. The absence or presence of
a comma in a particular position can not only change the meaning of
a sentence, but sometimes reverse it. In other cases,
the absence of a comma tells the reader that more than one of a certain thing
exists in the context of the sentence. Whereas the presence of a comma in
that same place will tell the reader that only one of that thing exists for
the context. In greater detail, we will analyze
such cases in the next course of this specialization in the course
called scholarly communication.

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