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[MUSIC] Register means all the factors
that go into any discourse. In other words, everything that
influences language choices in writing or conversation. It matters who is involved,
where they're involved and what method is being used to communicate. When register is correct,
we can we hardly notice it. It means that language and
grammar are presented correctly for the type of text or conversation. When register is incorrect, you notice that the language does not
match the type of text of conversation. A paper that starts with
a sentence such as, I reckon that the research findings
are cool, would make the reader stumble. Although, this may be
a possibly correct statement, it would be written in the wrong
register for a research publication. The language of academic writing differs
from everyday speech, which generally uses informal language, hesitations,
repetitions and incomplete sentences. In a face to face situation,
we tend to rely on the listener to give us usual clues as to whether what
they're saying has been understood. If not, we can rephrase or try to
explain something in a different way. In written language, however, others cannot anticipate the response
of the readers and, therefore, the language needs to be more precise if
they wish to communicate effectively. Since writers cannot respond to
the reader's facial expressions or body gestures,
they have to rely on words and punctuation marks to
express their full meaning. Writing is, therefore, a demanding skill. Academic writing, in particular,
requires an extensive vocabulary, a good command of grammar,
thorough knowledge of spelling and punctuation rules and an ability to
put ideas down in a logical order. Writing also requires
an understanding of how style is affected by both purpose and audience. In academic texts, the writing style
is influenced by a number of factors, including: the aim of
writing (for example, to inform, to propose or to persuade). The structure of writing, whether it is
a research paper or a technical report. Vocabulary, whether it is ceremonial,
formal. Context, which can be personal or
professional. The reader or
readers (colleagues, reviewers). And the relationship
between the reader and the writer, whether they are on
friendly terms or distant from other. We refer to different levels of formality
in English as different registers. Register refers to the appropriate
use of language, which vary according to different contexts, different
purposes and different audiences. We commonly recognize registers because
of their specialized vocabulary, but also because of
particular uses of grammar. Register knowledge is essential
to your understanding and representation of academic texts. Recognition of register creates a starting
point and a framework of analysis for an area of study, and
helps to structure and interpret texts. Although register is a complex idea,
the most common aspect looked at in language learning is
the degree of formality. A register may range from very
formal to very informal or from very official to ceremonial
to familial and friendly. Formal language generally
uses different words and longer sentences than informal language,
and is intended to create the impression
of social distance between people. Informal register is occasionally
used in academic writing. When using an informal register, there
is usually a close relationship between the writer, audience and topic,
with a degree of casualness. However, care must be taken in
order not to mistake informal for familiar registers. The features of this register
are different from the familiar register, as more care is taken with grammar. However, the tone is conversational, using colloquial language
compared to the formal register. A formal register is the register that is
mostly often used in academic writing. It is a register where strong opinions
can be expressed objectively. It does not break any of
the rules of written grammar, and often has a set of rules of what
not to do when using this register. The following extract is from Crystal's
book, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Ceremonial register, modern academic
writing rarely uses this register. Sometimes, it may be encountered when reading transcriptions of speeches or
historical documents. Often, misunderstandings in recognizing
the difference between ceremonial and formal registers occur when writers
are experimenting with vocabulary. A dictionary will help you
make the right choice. And reading academic texts will
help you become more familiar with appropriate choices. Here are centered the hopes,
and aspirations and faith of the entire human race. Academic writers need to select the words
and structures that are most appropriate for the situation and
most likely to achieve the desired effect. There are very definite rules and conventions that prevent the use of
colloquialisms, for example, okay, or slang expressions, for example,
guy or guys, and contractions, for example, didn't or it's,
in all styles of formal written English. In this example, note how very different
the language is used to explain and define the word research. Beginning with a conversational
way of explaining the word, the definitions become
increasingly more formal, with the last one being
a formal academic definition.

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