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[MUSIC] Parallelism shows that two or
more ideas are equally important by stating them in grammatically parallel
form, noun lined up with noun, verb with verb, and phrase with phrase. Parallelism can lend clarity,
elegance and symmetry to what you say. I believe most of you know those famous
words by Julius Caesar, I came, I saw, I conquered. Using these three simple verbs
to list the things he did, Caesar makes coming, seeing, and
conquering all equal in importance. He also implies that for him, conquering
was as easy as coming and seeing. The right parallel
constructions put two or more coordinate items into
the same grammatical form. I have nothing to offer but
blood, toil, tears and sweat. Churchill uses four nouns to identify what
he offers the British people in war time. Or phrase by Abraham Lincoln,
the government of the people, by the people, for the people,
shall not perish from the Earth. Lincoln uses three prepositional
phrases to describe the essential characteristics
of American democracy. The principle of parallelism in writing
straddles the gap between grammar and style. Using parallel structure with words,
phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, and even sections of a paper
is part of good English grammar. It also constitutes an important
category of good English style. Two or more words, phrases, concepts are considered parallel when they
occupy grammatically and semantically parallel positions within a sentence,
paragraph or a larger piece of writing. For example, if a sentence has
two parallel verbs, for example, connected by and or or. And the first verb is used
in the present simple tense, then the second verb must also be
used in the present simple tense. In the sentence, bold and
free searching is required. Both bold and
free are in the same modifying position. They, therefore, hold parallel or
equal positions within the sentence. For the sentence to have
proper parallel structure, the two words must also be in
the same grammatical form. And they are both,
in this case, adjectives. The same principle holds true for all
the other parts of speech, as well as for much longer phrases and clauses,
extending into entire paragraphs, subsections and sections of the paper. For example, in every crystal,
in every inert natural body, we have the manifestation of
a particular state of space. The primary purpose of writing
parallel ideas in parallel structure is to maximize the use of absorption
on the part of the reader. Parallel structure sets up a rhythm
that allows the reader to easily absorb a longer and
complex series of information. In the English linguistic community,
all good writers use parallel structures and
all readers expect these structures. Whenever two or more items are in
parallel position, with the horizontal or within a sentence in a paragraph or
vertical in a bullet list, the principle of parallel
structure applies. Here are some examples of
good parallel structure. While each of the sentences present
the same information slightly differently, all the sentences represent
correct parallel structures. By contrast,
consider the following sentence. I was working as an engineer and
trained as a biologist. The sentence both looks wrong and
sounds wrong. The problem is that while was working and trained are both predicates,
they are not in the same grammatical form. Was riding, his bus continues,
and trained is past simple. Thus the sentence lacks
parallel structure. Both its grammar and
its style are unacceptable. Instead, the writer should use either
I was working as an engineer and training as a biologist, or I worked as
an engineer and trained as a biologist. One aspect of parallelism
has to do with meaning. Having three parallel words
whether in a sentence or in a vertical list that are all nouns or
all in verbs or all preposition phrases is correct only
if all three belong to the same list. Grammatical parallelism is not enough. Let's consider for example,
the series metal, alloy and titanium. While all three are nouns,
the first two nouns are generic nouns, whereas the third is a specific noun
within one of those generic categories. Therefore, the list is
not properly parallel. The writer must consider whether to write,
metals, alloys and metal compounds or copper,
palladium or titanium. Sometimes, which words or concepts are parallel with others
escapes the writer's initial notice. In lists the missing word or phrase often
appears in a sentence beginning with also. Good academic writers never begin
an English sentence with also, but rather with in addition, additionally,
moreover or furthermore. A sentence begins with also is almost
always a sign of the first draft, indicating that information following
also belongs in the previous sentence. In lists where the vertical or horizontal
sentence is within the paragraph, every listed item most be in
the same grammatical form. If the first item on the list
is a complete sentence then all items that follow
must be complete sentences. If the first item begins with ing, then all the following items
must begin in the same way. Here is an example of
horizontal parallelism. Each of the five items
is a verb compliment. Here's an example of vertical parallelism. Literature review shows that the author
has a thorough understanding of the topic. Identified similar work
done within the area. Identified knowledge gaps that
demand further investigation. Compared previous findings. Critiqued existing findings and
suggested further studies. Obviously there is a problem
with this parallel structure. The first and
the rest of the items differ. Has, identified, compared, critiqued. To correct the wrong parallel construction
we can rewrite the first bullet item in two different ways, either had
a thorough understanding of the topic, or understood the topic thoroughly. From the previous module you learned that
effective academic writing is clear, concise, and concrete. To achieve this goal we need to support
and revise nominalization, understanding. Thus we can write understood
the topic thoroughly. Using reverse dictionary,
we find a better substitute for understand something thoroughly. Of all the offered options
in the dictionary, we chose the word analysed
as most appropriate. And then we have a proper
parallel construction. Literature review shows that
the author analysed the topic, identified similar work done within
the area, identified knowledge gaps that demand further investigation,
compared previous findings, and critiqued existing findings and
suggested further studies.

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