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[MUSIC] This video lecture focuses on verb
tense defined as time plus aspect, for example past simple or present perfect. Fortunately only a small amount of
tenses are frequent in academic writing. However, there are many cases where
authors use something different because of personal preferences,
style, or information structure. To help you understand how
scholarly writers use verb tenses read widely in your field and
look closely at the verbs and ask yourself why the writer chose this or
that tense. This table shows the forms
of the English tenses for a regular verb investigate and
then the regular verb grow. The three tenses in active and
passive voice in shaded boxes account for the majority of tenses in academic
writing, the present simple, the past simple, and the present perfect. The other tenses occur quite rarely. Broadly speaking,
you can choose from these three tenses for more than 98% of verbs that need tense. However, the choice of tense
affects the meaning of writing. The tense can tell the reader
when an event happened or started, or
whether it is completed or ongoing. It can indicate if the writer
considers the event, or state, to be relevant or true for
the current moment. And it can reorganize information
through the choice of passive voice. The aspect of a verb does not indicate
when an action takes place in time. But rather shows the relation
between the action and the passage of time as seen from
the speaker's point of view. There are two aspects in English, the continuous sometimes known as
progressive aspect, expresses duration. The perfect aspect expresses completion. The combination of those two aspects
makes the perfect continuous for example. Tense communicates an event's place,
in time and their associated verb forms,
identify the different tenses. We can categorize tenses
in two different ways. First, we can think of past,
present and future. Second, each of these tenses
can take four aspects, simple, perfect, continuous and
perfect continuous. Here is a table of the basic
functions of tenses and aspect. Note that the perfect aspect
is characterized by the use of the verb to have and
the continuous by the verb to be. Present simple is used for
facts, generalizations, and truths that are not affected
by the passage of time. Past simple is used for
events completed in the past. Future simple is used for events that
will be completed in the future. Present continuous is used to emphasize
the continuing nature of an event, usually a temporary one. Past continuous is used to emphasize
the setting of other events in the past. Future continuous is used to
emphasize the setting of other events expected to take place in the future. Present perfect is used
to emphasize an event whose consequences are still relevant. Past perfect is used to emphasize
an event whose consequences were still relevant at an implied or
stated past time. Future perfect is used to emphasize
an event whose consequences will still be relevant in an implied or
stated future time. Present perfect continuous is used to
emphasize the continuing nature of events that ended recently and
are still relevant. Past perfect continuous is used to
emphasize the continuing nature of events that ended just before an implied or
stated past time and that were still relevant at that time. Future perfect continuous is used to
emphasize the continuing nature of events that will end just before an implied or stated future time and
that will still be relevant to that time. Present simple, this tense is most
commonly used in academic writing since academic study generally
concerns what is and is not the case. For example, scholarly writers
are primarily concerned with establishing the fact of a given matter, and making
sensible generalizations about the matter. It is worth noting here that abstracts are
most often written in the present tense, even while they communicate information
about other sections that normally use the past tense, as when an abstract
describes key points of a study's methods. This is because the abstract is primarily
to talk about the paper itself. Which will remain the same
over the passage of time. It is also worth noting that background
information is usually described in relation to the present state
of knowledge about a subject. As such, background information is
often given in the present tense. Past simple tense, this tense is
the primary tense used in the methods and results sections of research papers. Since these sections should
emphasize experiments and procedures that began and
ended in the past. Also found in the conclusion
section of papers, when referring to these experiments and
procedures as they were carried out. The present perfect tense, this tense is
most often used in literature reviews, where the focus is on examining
work done in the past that is relevant to the current
concerns of the paper. Also used for references to past
relevant work more generally regardless of which section of
a paper these references appear. The other tenses are not
commonly used in academic work.

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