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[MUSIC] Verbs can be characterized
by their meaning. Different types of verbs describe
different kinds of experiences. Action verbs describe events. Reporting verbs report speech and ideas. And linking verbs show
how things are related. Each type of verb allows and
requires different types of subjects and complements. Complementation is concerned with elements
which follow the verb and the clause, and which are necessary to complete
the meaning of the verb in some way. Some verbs are complete in themselves and
require no complementation. They are used as intransitive verbs. Others require single complementation or
dual complementation, and are used as transitive verbs. For example, the temperature increased. The verb is intransitive. No complement is needed, and
the verb is complete in itself. Another example. The researcher investigated
the effectiveness of a new medication for lowering blood pressure. The verb is transitive. Single complementation is needed. The speaker must say
what was investigated. Another example,
we put a soil sample into the funnel. The verb is transitive. But, in this case,
dual complementation is needed. The speaker must say what was put and
where it was put. These are the examples of
single complementation. Figure one shows the results. The noun phrase, the results,
complements the verb, shows. Living matter is a minute
part of the planet. The noun phrase,
a minute part of the planet, gives more information in the predicate
about the subject of the sentence. The finding seems somewhat surprising. The adjective phrase, somewhat surprising,
also gives more information in the predicate about
the subject of the sentence. Very close to each other, six and
a half pounds, for over three hours. These phrases are predicative
complements of place, measure, and time. Even clauses can complement verbs,
as in the example. New findings indicate that fish may be
more able to evolve into air-breathing, walking creatures than earlier believed. Objects are most typically noun phrases. They follow the verb and they may be
direct object or indirect object. Direct objects indicate the person or
thing that undergoes the action denoted by the verb or the participant
directly affected by the action. We evaluated the temperature. Indirect objects indicate
the recipient of a direct object. They are usually people or animals. An indirect object is always
accompanied by direct object. Some verbs require dual complementation. The table shows several common
types of dual complementation. Let's consider these examples. The research plan has given them a better
understanding of the problem area. We have two object, indirect object and a direct object
expressed by two noun phrases. We sent a cover letter to the editor. And we have direct object
plus prepositional complement expressed by a noun phrase and
a prepositional phrase. The discovery made him world famous. We have direct object and object
complement which gives more information about the object, expressed by a noun
phrase and an adjective phrase. We placed a 30.5 gram sample of
an alloy into 49.1 gram water. We have direct object and prepositional phrase which locates
the object in terms of place. The researcher explained to the ethics
committee why the use of human participants was essential
to his research project. In this case we have indirect object and
direct object expressed by noun phrase and a prepositional phrase. Clause functions as direct object
alongside indirect object, expressed by noun phrase and a clause. The choice of verb controls
the structure of the sentences. In the takeaway section,
you can find the table that summarizes common sentence patterns
in both active and passive voice.

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