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[MUSIC] Grammatical cohesion refers to
the linguistic structure of the text, the highest structural unit in
the grammar is the sentence. The structure determines the order in
which grammatical elements occur, and they way they are related
within a sentence. Cohesive relationships with
other sentences create a certain linguistic environment, and the meaning
of each sentence depends on it. Various linguistic meanings help to
identify whether a text can function as a single meaningful unit or not. This table illustrates the types
of grammatical cohesion. Reference is a way of creating
cohesion using determiners this, that, these, those, or pronouns him, them, me,
possessive pronouns your, their, hers. Relative pronouns, which, who, whose,
this type of cohesion can also be achieved comparatively with expressions
like similarly, like, less. Preferential cohesion plays a special
role in creating cohesive ties between the elements
that can be difficult or even impossible to interpret if a single
sentence is taken out of context. So what is quantum mechanics? Even though it was discovered by
physicist it's not a physical theory in the same sense as electromagnetism or
general relativity. It is understood that it,
in the second clause, refers to the previous noun,
quantum mechanics. This kind of tie is called anaphoric. Anaphoric reference points readers
backwards to what is previously mentioned. On the contrary, cataphoric
reference looks forward in the text in order to identify the elements
the reference items to refer to. Look at the sun, it's going down quickly. It refers back to the sun. It's going down quickly, the sun,
it refers forwards to the sun. There are three sub-types
of referential cohesion, personal, demonstrative and comparative. The definite article is included
into the sub-type of demonstratives. Various types of referential
cohesion enable writers to make multiple references to things and
people within a text. Personal reference items are expressed
through the three classes of personal pronouns, possessive determiners and possessive pronouns through
the category of person. Personal reference is used to
identify individuals and things or objects that are named at
some other point in the text. Alice wondered a little at this, but she was too much in awe of
the Queen to disbelieve it. The third person singular pronoun,
She refers back to Alice. Demonstrative reference is expressed
through determiners and adverbs. This type of reference is achieved by
means of location on a scale of proximity. What is understood by proximity
is nearness in place, time, occurrence, or relation. Demonstrative reference items can
represent a single word or phrase and they can range across several paragraphs. We went to the opera last night. That was our first outing for months. That refers anaphorically to last night. The definite article the is classified
together with demonstratives and possessives. Historically, it is a reduced form
of thought, the reference item, the, usually accompanies a general
noun in cohesive function. Didn't anyone make it clear they
expected the supervisor to resign? They did. But it seems to have made
impression on the man. From a grammatical point of view,
the anaphoric the plus general noun functions like an anaphoric
reference item. The man, him. The definite article has no content and, thus, it cannot specify
anything on its own. It serves to identify
a particular individual or subclass within the class design
designated by the noun but it does this only through
dependents on something else. The definite article creates
a cohesive link between the sentence in which it occurs and
the referential information. It does not contain that information
in itself, and it does not say where the information is located, its only
function is to signal definiteness. The third type of referential
cohesion is comparative. Comparative reference is expressed
through adjectives and adverbs, and serves to compare items within an attack
in terms of identity or similarity. Ellipsis, as well as a need for it because
they're understood from the context, for example, John can type and I can too. We did not use type,
because it's understood from the context. I don't want to get out do you? Want to get out. Substitution uses a word/phrase to
replace a word/phrase used earlier. For instance, the ones, one the same can be used to
replace nouns I'll have the same. Verbs can be replaced by do. The authorities said that they had acted,
but nobody believed that they had done. In speaking, whole clauses
can be replaced by so or not. I hope so. I don't think so. I suppose that sooner or later
the physicists will complete the catalogue they have been compiling of the ultimate
and Irreducible property of things. When they do,
the likes of spin, charm, and charge will perhaps appear on that list. Conjunction, it involves using
transitional words and phrases. Transitional words and phrases help readers move from one
sentence, paragraph, or idea to another. Transitions also help to establish
the relationship between parts of the sentences and paragraphs or
sections in a research publication. Transitions, provide valuable
signals to the reader about the relationships
between parts of the text. There are different types of conjunction
relations in terms of meaning. Can be external and internal, additive,
adversative, causal and temporal. The simplest form of conjunctive relations
can be expressed by the words and, yet, so and then.

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