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[MUSIC] Lexical cohesion is the cohesive effect
achieved by the selection of vocabulary. Lexical cohesion is basically created
by the general nouns, or repetition of the same lexeme, or the use of other
lexical relations as cohesive patterns. Lexical cohesion refers to the ties
created between lexical elements, such as words. For example, mechanics,
or groups of words. Quantum mechanics and
phrases to carry out research. These lexical ties can occur over
long passages of text or discourse. The primary paradigmatic types of
cohesion, meaning words of the same type of class, are repetition,
synonymy hyponymy and meronymy. Repetition means using
the same word over again, but not restricting to the same
morphological form. In this short example the author
repeats the word motion four times. Synonymy: using words that are in
the same way synonymous, or, in the case of autonomy,
in some way autonomous. The word study and research,
they are synonyms. Hyponymy: one word represents "a
class of thing and the second either a superclass or a subclass, or
another class of the same level. For example, Spark Plasma Sintering
is a class of thing, while techniques is a sub-class. Meronymy: words that refer
to parts of a whole. For example, research. That's class, experiment, observations, procedure, sampling. One of the practical tools that can
help improve the lexical coherence of your writing, is to use a concept map. There is a different type of lexical
coherence that occurs at stigmatic level, the level of syntax. General nouns: in this type of cohesion,
two items have the same referent. Military actions against
Iraq were not successful. The moves were illegal. The class of general noun, is a small set
of nouns having generalized reference within the major noun class,
such as human noun, place noun, fact noun. Cohesive nouns are a kind
of lexical reference. They can summarize many words in one. Attitude, solution, difficulty, and have been called umbrella nouns for
this reason. They are used to signal what is to come. For example, the problem to be discuss,
or can refer back. The issue. Over a million dollars
was spent last year. This investment was needed and
was wisely spent. Cohesion occurs when the interpretation
of some element in the discourse, is dependent on that of another. Collocation: referring to
the tendency of words to occur. For example, when one says the now
in a search of a sentence. It is more probable that
the verb to conduct will also appear in the same sentence. In another example, the noun figure, could
more likely occur with a verb to indicate. Often lexical cohesion occurs,
not simply between parts of words, but over a succession of
a number of nearby related words, spanning a topical unit of the text. This lexical cohesion sequences of related
words will be called Lexical chains. Here is a distance relation
between each word and the chain. But the words co-occur
within a given span. Lexical chains do not stop
at sentence boundaries. They can connect the part of adjacent
words or range over an entire text. Lexical chains tend to delineate portions of text that
have a strong unity of meaning. Consider this example. Bizarrely behaving light particles
show that the famous Schrodinger's cat thought experiment, meant to reveal
the strange nature of subatomic particles, can get even weirder
than physicists thought. Why are lexical chains important? First, they provide an easy-to-determine
context, to aid in the resolution of ambiguity, and then the narrowing
to specific meaning of a word. Second, Lexical chains provide a clue for
the determination of coherence and discourse structure, and
hence the larger meaning of the text. When a chunk of text forms a unit within
a discourse there is a tendency for related words to be used. It follows,
that if lexical chains can be determined, they will tend to indicated
the structure of the whole text.

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