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[MUSIC] To write high quality research papers
you should follow these basic rules. You should do massive critical reading in
your discipline, synthesise the challenges of the previous research and think hard to
identify a topic for your own research. At the beginning you will probably not
know enough about the major scholarly topics that are of most
importance in the field. The topics that are most well covered
in the secondary literature or the topics that have already have
the life been about of them by successive generations of writers. You should begin by doing some
general reading in the field. If nothing else begin with
Encyclopedia Britannica a wonderful but sadly neglected resource. It, a very short introductions that can
change the way you think about the things that interest you. And the perfect introduction to subjects
you previously knew nothing about. You can also choose to read Oxford
Handbooks that offer authoritative and up to date surveys of every general
research in a particular topic area. The handbooks give critical
examinations of the progress and direction of the pace as well as
a foundation for future research. You should have a clear research question. Think not,
what will the paper be about, but what problem is this entire
field trying to solve? To develop a clear research question
from your ideas ask yourself if you know the field and
its literature world, what areas need further exploration, and
if your research could fill the gap. Let your research idea pass the so
what test. Think about the potential
impact of your research. You must also ask yourself questions
that begin with the word why or how. The point is that you should attempt to
identify either novel trends, developments or outcomes in the field of your
research that are not readily apparent. That's the how questions. And courses of a particular event or
general trend that's the why question. How and why questions are essential because they
require you to make an argument. Remember that research questions
that do not require an argument are just bad questions. You should do a real research. Real research means something other than
reading secondary sources in English or pulling information off the Internet. Real research means using primary sources. What counts as a primary
source though depends on what kind of question
you are trying to answer. The point about primary
sources is that they take you as close as possible
to where the action is. Video underground rubber meets
the road fact from which you will construct your argument. There are, however,
credations of primary evidence. The best sources are those in
the original languages that are linked to persons directly involved in the event or
developement that you are researching. Then comes sources that refer to
direct experiments or experience. In your research,
you should try to get a choice as close as possible to the events or
phenomena you are studying. Part of being a creative
scorer is figuring out how to assemble enough evidence
using critical thinking skills and the resources that you possess
in order to make a clear and substantial argument based on powerful and
credible sources? You should make an argument. Your paper must not only assemble evidence
but it must weave together this fact so that they form an argument that
answers a research question. There are no once and for all answers in any scholarly field but
there are better or worse arguments. The better ones have powerful
evidence based on reliable sources, are ordered and
logical in the presentation of evidence. And reach a clear and focused conclusion that answers the question posed
at the beginning of the paper. In addition, good arguments
also consider competing claims. What other counter arguments have been
put forward or could be put forward. Be count to your points. How would you respond to them? In fact, consideration of counter
arguments is often a good way to begin your paper. How have scholars normally accounted for
a particular event or trend? What are the weaknesses of their accounts? What evidence must be collected to
suggest an alternative explanation. How does your account differ
from the conventional wisdom? You should write well. Writing well means not only presenting
your argument and evidence in a clear, logical and creative way, but also in
clear, grammatically correct sentences. A research publication cloaked in
bad english is of no use to anyone. Remember there are four main problems
that can prevent you from writing well. The sentence fragments, which are
problematic because they are disjointed and confusing to the reader,
a missing subject or a missing verb. The run-on sentences which
actually contain two or more complete sentences without the proper
punctuation to create separate sentences. For example,
the comma splice in which a comma is inserted between two complete sentences
where a period should actually be used. A lack of punctuation where
a semi colon or period is needed. Lack of subject-verb or
pronoun-reference agreement. For example,
if the subject is in plural form, the verb should also in plural form or
vice versa. Lack of parallel structures, for
example, when more than one phrase or description is use in
a sentence those phrases or descriptions should be consistent with
one another and their full and worthy. Knowing they're also academic writing, will make you efficient
user of academic English. And the next course of
this specialization, we will analyze the unwritten
rules of academic writing that native speakers of English take for
granted. The course will provide you with
a specific practical and conceptual strategies aimed at getting to publishing
in today's academic market place. [MUSIC]

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