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Have you ever studied ocean life? There's another world
underneath the ocean, the deeper you go the more interesting and
unusual the fish become. Ordinary common looking fish such
as mackerel, cobia, catshark and krill, live on the surface toward the top. As you go deeper, the fish get more
interesting and out of the ordinary. Fish like the rat tail fish,
the grouper eel, the black swallower and the angler fish live
deep down in the ocean. The various types of fish in the deep sea
look like they're from another planet. It's also true that the deeper
that you go in conversation, the more interesting your
conversation becomes. What I mean by going deeper is to have
discussions that require critical thinking. To have discussions where the participants
are thinking independently, and coming up with new ideas. In this lesson, we will talk about
how thinking can be divided into six different levels, which of those levels
are considered critical thinking, and how you can incorporate these levels of
critical thinking into your discussions. A psychologist named Benjamin Bloom
categorize thinking into six levels. Knowledge, Comprehension, Application,
Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation. The lower level skills, knowledge,
comprehension and application, involve repeating facts, summarizing
information that's been received, and carrying out a procedure that's been
taught in a familiar situation. Basically, with lower levels of thinking,
information is presented and the learner needs to repeat it. Lower level thinking skills do not require
that the learner develop new thoughts. Higher level thinking analysis,
synthesis and evaluation on the other hand trains
people to think independently. These three levels are considered
to be critical thinking. These skills help learners
to see patterns and connections, to identify problems and
find solutions. To think of alternative possibilities,
to see different perspectives. To apply skills to new situations and to
support an opinion with relevant evidence. Research consistently finds that when
learners practice a concept using higher level thinking skills,
they remember it longer and apply it more easily to new situations. In academic conversation,
it's important to know and understand the facts,
however, thinking deeply and critically make the conversations
more memorable and more meaningful. Read the following questions, which of
them do you think will be interesting and engaging to discuss in
the discussion group? Each of these questions represents
one of the six levels of thinking. Let's learn a little more about each
specific level of thinking now. The first and the most basic
level of thinking is knowledge. At the knowledge level of thinking,
the learner recalls information. An example of a knowledge level question
is, what is genetically modified food? Some questions you can ask to your
group members could begin with one of the following questions starters. The second level of
thinking is comprehension. At the comprehension thinking level, learners show their
understanding of ideas. An example of a comprehension
level question is, how would you summarize the reasons
that GMOs have been created? Some questions you can ask your
group members could begin with one of the following question starters. The third level of
thinking is application. At the application level of thinking learners used their knowledge state
learned in a familiar situation. An example of an application
level question is, what would be the best approach
to convincing the government in the United States to require the labeling
of genetically modified food. Some questions that you can ask
your group members could begin with one of the following question starters. BLANK_AUDIO] Now onto the higher
level thinking skills. At the analysis level of thinking,
learners break down information into small parts to find
the relationship between them. An example of an analysis question is,
what do you think are the main reasons that the United States do
not require GM food to be labeled? Some questions you can ask you groups
members could begin with one of the following question starters. The fifth level of thinking is synthesis,
at the synthesis level of thinking, learners put parts
together to form a whole. An example of a synthesis level
question is what evidence is there that concludes that GMOs are dangerous? Some questions you can ask your
group members can begin with one of the following question starters. The highest level of
thinking is evaluation. At the evaluation level of speaking,
learners make a judgement and support the judgement
with relevant evidence. An example of an evaluation level question
is, do you support the development of new, genetically modified foods? Please explain. Some questions that you can ask your
group members could begin with one of the following question starters. Going deeper in your discussions make the
concepts that are discussed more memorable and meaningful. The six levels of Bloom's taxonomy helps
clarify what it means to go deeper and to think critically. I hope after watching this video that
you're able to bring your discussions to another level.

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