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Hi. In the previous video I introduced you
to the study of human sound systems and we distinguished between two branches
of linguistics that study those. Phonology and phonetics. In this video I want to look a little bit
deeper into phonetics and we will do so by considering the way in which consonants
are articulated in human languages. Well, I'm not going to do that on my own. I brought my friend the spliced
head here for illustration. There are three dimensions in which
consonants can differ from each other. The first dimension is called
the place of articulation, where in the mouth do you
actually produce, the sound. One such place for
instance is here at the lips. It's the place which I use when I
produce sounds like puh or buh or muh. You can see it. If if you see me produce those sounds
you can see that I use my lips. Puh. Buh. Muh. Such sounds are therefore
called labial sounds. Labia is the Latin word for lips. Another place of
articulation is right here, just behind the so-called alveolar ridge,
where you put the tip of your tongue. It's the place which I use for
producing sounds like tuh, or duh. Or na, or la,
again you can try it for yourself. I would actually suggest stop
the video now and try it. So it's ta, da, na, they're,
they're produced, as I said, just behind alveolar ridge, they're
therefore also called alveolar sounds. You make it by the tip of your tongue, but
you can also use the body of your tongue, the, the part of your tongue which is a
little bit more in the back of your mouth. If you put that back of your tongue
somewhere high up, you end up here. And that's called the velar place, because that called the velan, that's
the back part of your, of your mouth. Now you get sounds like kuh, guh or nah. Again, try it. Stop the video. Try it. Next to these three places,
labial, alveolar and velar. English doesn't have many other
places where sounds are produced. Other languages may have other places
of articulation for producing sound. Maybe your language produces
sounds in a very different place. I would urge you,
I would invite you to go to the forum and discuss this with the other
participants in this MOOC. One place of articulation which is
particularly interesting is actually not visible here on the spliced head
because it would be too low down. It's the one which for you use your
vocal chords by doing uh, uh, uh, that is a sound which is not made in your mouth therefore
but somewhere down in your throat. That is apparently another possibility. So this was the first
dimension of producing sounds. The place of articulation. The second dimension is how you
actually produce the sounds. What do you do to the air stream. When you speak the air typically goes out. I do it when I exhalate,
that's when I speak, okay, but what do I do to this air
stream coming out of my lungs? One thing I can do is just stop it,
stop it temporarily and then release it again,
you will hear a small explosion. Sounds like puh and tuh and cuh. All clearly have such an explosion. What do I do every time I say a puh? I close my lips completely,
my air tries to go out, it gets into my mouth, then I open my lips
again and you hear a small explosion. That small explosion,
that's the sound of the puh. And similarly for tuh and kuh. But then at different
places of articulation. So, that's one manner of
articulation as it's called, they're called plosives because
of the small explosion. The second manner is by closing
your mouth but not completely, so that some air can slip through. Those sounds are called fricatives. Suh and
fuh are good examples of such sounds. So if I say a fuh, I close my lips more or
less, so some air can still get out. You hear a lot of noise. That noise is the sound
of the fuh in this case. And those are the fricatives. Another interesting thing you can do is
you can close the air stream in your mouth but open your nose so
that the air can go out there. Muh or
nuh are good examples of such sounds, they're called nasal sounds
because you use the nose. You can actually see that you use the nose
if you find a mirror, try to find a mirror somewhere a mirror which you can
put under your nose, and then say pa, nothing happens to the mirror or say ma,
and you will see air on the mirror. You will see some
condensation on the mirror. A fourth manner of articulation
which I would like to mention is one where you let the air go out
more or less unimpeded in your mouth. Luh or ruh are good examples of that,
you do something with your tongue. But the air still can get out of
your mouth more or less freely. La, or ra. Again, try it, and again, think very
carefully because now I mentioned these four different manners of articulation
which are probably the most important ones for English namely plosives,
fricatives, nasals and then the last one. Ones which are called sonorants, the ones
where the air goes out completely freely. But maybe your language has
different ways of producing it. But let's move to the third dimension. This is again something
about the vocal chords. The things down here or here. In men you typically see
them easier than in women. But you can always feel them,
actually this is an exercise in feeling, put the tips of your fingers here,
if you say a t several times, t, t, t, you don't feel anything,
if I say a d, d, d, d. I feel, I feel it here. That's the difference. So do I use my vocal chords,
do I vibrate my vocal chords. Then I say a d. Do I not vibrate them? Then I say a t. So this is the difference in voicing
as we call it in linguistics. So those are the three most important
dimensions in producing consonant sounds. It's the place of articulation
where in the mouth that you do it. It's the manner of articulation. What you do with the air
stream when it goes out. It's in voicing. In the next video, I am going to discuss these issues of phonetics a little
bit more with Marten and Inge. We are going to look, for instance,
at another intriguing class of sounds, the vowels.

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