کلمات و جملات

 
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Hi.
And welcome to the third module. In the previous module
we talked about sounds. And now we turn to bigger things. We turn to words and sentences. For many people this is where the fun
really starts because words and sentences are the parts of language
where we start seeing meaning. In individual sound,
an a vowel doesn't mean much usually, but a word or
a sentence starts meaning things. And this is also, therefore, where
languages start differing in how they express thoughts, because they express
thoughts in words and sentences. In some languages, you can put
a lot of information in one word. Look at this Turkish word. It has a lot of information. In other languages,
the words are very small and short. Chinese is an example of that. Words are very short, and therefore, you don't put a lot of
information in one word. You have to put it in making a sentence. Languages can also differ in a way in
which they organize words in a sentence, in which they put the words
in a sentence together. Take this language. That's Dutch. Dutch happens to be my native language and
what we do is we put the person who does something in this case killing,
at the beginning of the sentence. That's different from this language,
Apalai. In that language,
the person does the killing, in this case, is actually put right at
the end of the sentence. So, the sentence means
they killed a jaguar, and the they is expressed at
the end of the sentence. Words and sentences each have
their own sub-discipline of linguistics studying them. Morphology is the study of
the internal structure of words, how words are composed of smaller, meaningful
units in languages of the world. And syntax is the study of sentences. How sentences are formed
out of words in turn. Now, it may seem to you that having
two subdisciplines, studying words and sentences, is a bit much. But actually, there's many,
many things to study here. And even simple concepts like words and
sentences themselves are not all that trivial if you
look more closely into languages. It will turn out that it's not actually
very easy to define what the word is, in particular if we start
comparing languages. So something which is one word in
one language might correspond to several words in some other language. And similarly sentences can be
structured very differently from one language to the next. But we will start with words. In the next video, we're going to look at the myriad ways in which languages can
form new words out of existing ones.

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