Introduction + Basque

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گزارش خرابی

Hi. We're now going to look at word
order in some real languages, and the fun thing is you can study
word order in a language without even really understanding the language. You don't have to really know what
the words of the language are, and you can still figure out what
the basic word order patterns are. For instance, if you take the major
subdivision into subject s, verb v, and object o, that we can just figure
out by asking a few simple questions, and Favone has graciously agreed
to help me in finding out what it the word order in Basque,
his language. And I ask Favone, how do you say in
your language, the woman eats rice? >> [FOREIGN]
>> And how do you say the woman eats bread? >> [FOREIGN]
>> So notice what I did there. I took two English sentences, which
were the same exact for the object of the sentence, bread and rice,
those were the objects of those sentences. In English,
they are at the end of the sentence, because English is an SVO language, but
Favone didn't change anything at the end of the sentence, but he also didn't change
anything at the beginning of the sentence. What changed was something in
the middle of the sentence. We don't know exactly
what those words are. We don't even really know what
the boundaries in between the words are. What we observed something changed in
the middle when the object changed. Conclusion, the object must
be in the middle in Basque. So bask is either an SOV language,
object in the middle, or a VOS language object in the middle. Those are the two logical possibilities,
and the other aspects of word order. So which of the two, for instance,
or any other aspect of word order, we can find out in a similar way,
by asking him just a few more questions. Such as, how do you say,
in your language, the woman cooks rice? >> [FOREIGN]
>> How do you say the man cooks rice? >> [FOREIGN]
>> How do you say the beautiful flower? >> [FOREIGN]
>> The ugly flower? >> [FOREIGN]
>> The beautiful plant? [FOREIGN]
>> The ugly plant. >> [FOREIGN]
>> In the city. >> [FOREIGN]
>> In the village. >> [FOREIGN]
>> Towards the city. >> [FOREIGN]
>> Towards the village. [FOREIGN]
>> How do you say in your language, who eats rice? >> [FOREIGN]
>> How do you say, what does the man eat? >> [FOREIGN]
>> Who cooks bread? >> [FOREIGN]
>> What does Mary cook? [FOREIGN]

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