ایده اصلی (main idea)

 
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Do you know what the difference is between
a main idea and a supporting detail? How can you tell them apart in a lecture? The aim of this video,
is to help you answer these two questions. Think of the main idea as
the top of a table and the supporting details
as the legs of a table. The table top gives purpose to the legs. They are connected to the table top and
they support it, they make the table top strong. Similarly, in a lecture the supporting
details strengthen the main idea. Without the main idea the supporting
details make no sense and have no purpose. >> Supporting details show,
explain and prove. They show the main idea with
visual details and description. They explain the main idea
with specific examples and they prove the main idea with
evidence from other sources. Notice how indenting the supporting ideas
clearly shows what the main idea is. >> But what keeps me up at night is water. The biggest enemy of water on this planet is uncontrolled population growth. There are 7 billion people on this planet
and it's projected that by the year 2050 there will be between 9 and
10 billion people on this planet. In the 21st century, it's very likely that there will
be wars fought over water not oil. For there are substitutes to oil, but there are no substitute whatsoever for
water. >> So how did we come up with the main idea? I've got four strategies to
help us identify the main idea. One thing you can do is see if
the title gives you a hint. We didn't see a title, so
that doesn't help in this case. Secondly, you can pay extra attention to
the beginning and the end of a lecture. It's common for a speaker to clearly
introduce and conclude with the main idea. This didn't help us out either in
our example, because we haven't yet heard the entire lecture. Third, you can ask yourself what
is the point of the lecture? And finally, listen for related words. What do I mean by related words? The words that have similar meaning within the same passage. Look at the text from the lecture
clip that we just heard. Now I will highlight related words. By looking at these words,
we see the words water recurring as well as negative words,
which imply the speakers concern. By paying attention to
these related words, it's easier to come to
the conclusion that the main idea is the speaker is very concerned about
the availability of water in the future. So to review what we've discussed. Main ideas are the tabletop and the supporting details are the legs of the table. Supporting details are connected to and
support the main idea. Supporting details show, explain and
they prove the main idea. Supporting detail should be indented underneath the main ideas
in your lecture notes. And lastly some strategies to help
identify the main idea include, seeing if the title gives you a hint. Paying attention to the beginning and
end of a lecture and asking yourself what the point is. And lastly, listening for related words.

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