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گزارش خرابی

Earlier in this course,
in the Listening Strategies lesson, we briefly mentioned how to identify
the important points of a lecture and how to put those points in your notes. We talked about how you absolutely shouldn't be writing down everything that you hear. Speakers sometimes digress and talk about things that are not even related to the lecture. You need to figure out what details
are important enough to write down. In this lesson, we will discuss how to
identify important points in a lecture, and we'll give you the opportunity to
practice identifying important points from actual lectures. As we have learned,
there are three types of Cues. Or sometimes they're called clues, that help us determine the most
important points of the lecture. Language Cues, Visual Cues,
and Verbal Cues. Language Cues, as presented in the Language Cues lesson. Are words or phrases which signal that certain information is about to be given. When hunting for key information in
the lecture, you should listen for language cues that explain a word or
concept, that restate a word or concept, or
that emphasize a particular point. Another way that speakers signal
key information with words and phrases is through a parallelism which
is a repetition of an exact phrase. Martin Luther King Jr.'s phrase,
I have a dream, is a classic example of
the use of parallelism. Listen to a couple examples of a professor
using language cues in his lecture. >> Inhale. Exhale. Yes. Every second breath you
take comes from the ocean. A process the scientists call,
primary productivity. It's the conversion of carbon
dioxide with nutrients, and that original big green compound,
chlorophyll, that absorbs the sun's energy and
converts it to oxygen and cellular growth. But what keeps me up at night is water. A planet that we could leave to our children and our grandchildren. And when I look at the kids I think
about the necessities of life. Water. Clean water. Air. Clean air. Food. Healthy food. And shelter. >> Next up, Visual Cues. What do professors do physically
that you see if your eyes that emphasize a key point? The speaker may write on the board, raise his or her eyebrows, or hold up her hand or finger. >> Environment is going to
be a disaster in the making. Make no mistake, the planet will survive. The question is,
will we as a species survive? >> Lastly, Verbal Cues. Verbal cues may include longer than
usual pauses, saying the information more slowly, or saying it at a higher
pitch, and or simply more loudly. >> There are 7 billion
people on this planet. The world around us is beautiful and
it is our means to sustainability. >> Now that you're a little more aware of language cues, visual cues, and verbal cues, my hope is that you'll recognize them more
readily in lectures and write these key items down neatly in your notes.

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