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While listening to a lecture, you should be writing down important
information that the professor is saying. You should also be paying close attention
to what the professor doesn't say. Ask questions in your head. Is this fact or opinion? If it's a fact, is it from a textbook or is the speaker sharing personal knowledge? If it's an opinion,
does the speaker agree or disagree? In other words,
exactly how does the professor feel? How does he or she want us to feel? The speaker's feeling is called a stance, or tone, or attitude. Is the speaker being humorous? Annoyed? Indifferent? Proud? Hesitant? There are thousands of adjectives that
can be used to describe these emotions, which can be classified
into three connotations. Positive, neutral and negative. The speaker's tone conveys the true
value of his or her words. If the professor is being serious, this may be important information
that you should remember. If the professor is being pensive, perhaps
there are many options out there and he or she wants you to weigh the advantages and
disadvantages of each option. If the professor is being light and humorous, this information
isn't as important. Just sit back and enjoy the fun. However, if the professor is making
sarcastic jokes, disapproval could be the underlying attitude, and you should
be listening for why he or she disagrees. Often, the speaker will not
directly state how he or she feels, but you can catch clues. One aspect to consider is
paralanguage: visual and vocal cues. Notice changes in facial expression,
voice inflection, body movement. Paralanguage can tell you the true
meaning behind the words. Compare the tone of this sentence
said in two very different ways. a, The scientist developed
an interesting theory. B, The scientist developed an,
interesting theory. Which sentence sounded negative, hesitant,
revealing that I don't like this theory? The second sentence, b. In contrast, a, was said in a positive,
enthusiastic manner, like I agree with it. Diction, the choice of vocabulary, can
also shed light on the speaker's stance. Pay attention to intensifiers and qualifiers that show
the degree of certainty. Intensifiers strengthen
the speaker's claim. Qualifiers on the other
hand weaken a claim. Intensifiers communicate 100% certainty. Qualifiers express doubt,
less than 100% certainty. There is a wide range from a little
bit unsure to very unsure. Compare these sentences. It is clearly evident that
the research data was mishandled. It is evident that the research data was mishandled. It is highly probable that the research data was mishandled. It is probable that the research data was mishandled. It is possible that the research data was mishandled. It is unlikely that the research data was mishandled. It is improbable that the research data was mishandled. There is no evidence that the research data was mishandled. There is absolutely no evidence that the research data was mishandled. Diction creates a difference in tone. When an intensifier is used, the professor strongly believes, or disbelieves what he or she is saying. If a qualifier is used, the professor is acknowledging that there are exceptional cases. Listen for these special cases and
the reasons for doubt. Even if reasons aren't provided, the professor expects you to be
actively thinking about the issue. Always be asking questions in your head. Is this a fact or an opinion? Does the professor agree or disagree? A lot or a little? Why? To see the speaker's stance, the
real meaning behind his or her words, you can analyze one, the emotions, and whether they have positive, neutral, or negative connotations. Two, paralanguage, such as voice inflections and body language. And three, diction, including intensifiers and qualifiers. What the professor says is not as important as how it is said.

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