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گزارش خرابی

Hello. My name is Nicolette. In this film, we'll take a look at the
different parts a reference consists of and some of the different citation styles
or systems of referencing that we can use. Another word for reference is source
reference or bibliographic citation. A reference helps your readers to
accurately identify the origin source you've used in your text. And the way in which we refer has
evolved over hundreds of years. A long time ago, for example, an incorrect
reference could result in a monk writing for several weeks, finally arriving
at the goal of his journey, only to find out that the place of publication
written in the reference was wrong. Of course this was long before
mobile phones and the Internet, but an inadequate reference can still have
disastrous consequences even nowadays. Take the example of Karl-Theodor zu
Guttenberg, Germany's former Minister of Defense, who in 2011, lost his
Doctor's degree and all his political commitments due to the facts that he had
copied major parts of his doctoral thesis. Subsequently he became
know as Google-berg. For your reference to be correct and understandable, several
parts need to be included. Obviously the title of
the work you're referencing needs to be there as well as the author. And if we look at books for example, we notice these can come
in different editions. Sometimes revisions, adaptations or changes have taken place between
these different editions. This is why you need to include the year
of publication and edition number of your reference, so your reader knows
exactly which source you've used. The same goes for a book's publisher and place of publication, because these
factors can affect the way a book looks. Imagine someone has another
edition of the same book. The page numbering might be different and that will make your source
even harder to find. So, how do you refer to different sources? When your source is a book, you need to
include the title, as we saw earlier, the author, the year of publication, the
publisher, and the place of publication. But if the work you used is a chapter in
an anthology with different parts written by different authors, you need
to give the title of the anthology, as well as the title of
the chapter that you used. The same goes for
the authors and the editors, who are the people putting together
the different chapters in the book. The names of both authors and
editors need to be in your reference. Now let's take a look at
articles in scientific journals. We see several similarities with
the contributions in an anthology. You need to include the title
of the article, its authors and the year the article was published. But your reader also
needs to know the journal in which the article was published,
the volume and the issue number. These numbers make it easier to discern
where exactly the article can be found, because a journal can publish
several issues per year, and it may have published one volume per
year since the 1800s for example. Also, you need to give the page
numbers of the article you've used. And, if you took the article
from the Internet, you often need to include the web address
and the date you accessed the article. Web addresses are not always constant. Because of this, and because of the fact
that articles may be locked into a database that needs a log in,
something called DOI was created. It means digital object identifier, and
is an article's unique code on the web. Now, this code is stable,
it does not change over time. There are many different sources
you might need to refer to when writing your academic text. Besides the forms we've already looked at,
they may for example also include newspapers, or blogs, or
reports from authorities or conferences. There are rules for how you need to refer
to these different types of material. Exactly what these
differences will look like depends on what reference system you use. This leads us to the question, why
are there different reference systems? Well, as we saw in the beginning of this
film in different context we have been referring to sources
since a long time ago. Several established ways to
write references has emerged with different outputs. The references look different in these
systems due to the fact that these reference systems were developed
at different universities or to meet different needs. The main difference between
different ways of referencing is whether you use parentheses in
the text you write or footnotes. The most well known parenthetical
reference systems are Harvard and APA, developed at Harvard University and the American Psychological Association,
respectively. In your text you put the authors name and the year of publication in parentheses
when referencing your source. Your reader then knows that there's
a description of this particular reference in your reference list, which is a list with all the sources that
we used, usually in the end of a text. The Harvard System was
developed mainly by biologists, but it has later on become big within
humanities and social sciences. APA was originally developed
by a psychologist but is also widely used within social,
behavioral, and health sciences. Now, the Oxford and
Vancouver systems are based on notes. This means that a reference in the text
is given as an elevated number or a number in parenthesis or brackets, but is explained on the bottom of the page or
in the end of the chapter or text. The Oxford reference system was
developed by Horace Hart who worked for Oxford University Press in the late 1800s. This is probably why most printers and
publishers choose this system. Vancouver, on the other hand, was
developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors at
their first meeting in Vancouver. Nowadays, the Vancouver reference system
is mostly used in medical sciences. Which of these reference systems you need
to use when writing your academic text depends on what discipline you write in,
and the context in which your text will
be read also plays an important role. Some universities and supervisors prefer one system,
whereas journals may prefer another one. Therefore, you should always
check what applies to you before you start writing your references. But regardless of what system you use, the different parts making up the references are always the same. And they are there to help you
redefine the source that you used. Good luck with your academic writing. [MUSIC]

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