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Hi, my name is Fredrik, and in this video,
I will explain how to use references, what you should refer to, and
lastly, when to use references. Let's start off by looking
at how to use references. One key aspect of academic writing is
the use of citations or references. When writing scholarly material,
you must always be transparent about which ideas are yours and
which stem from previous research. Therefore, it is important to
specify where your theories or claims originate from. What previous material did you take
into account when you started writing? Think of it as guidance to your readers. By referring to other people's ideas,
you make it possible for your readers to follow
your train of thought. They might be interested in the previous
research themselves, or maybe they just wish to read it to make sure you have
interpreted everything correctly. Then there's the aspect of paying
respect to those before you. You've used their scientific findings and
it's appropriate to let them and your readers know this. Also, when you refer to people, you
are positioning yourself within the field. You show that you know who the leading
experts are within your subject, that you have grasped what they've published,
and that you have done your homework. Academic writing and referencing is all about building a line
of argument that is well grounded. So what should you to refer to? You should refer to the sources
that you've used in your own work. If you've read an article,
a book, or a report and used ideas data and facts from it,
then you must show this. Usually, this is quite obvious, but
of course questions could arise. For instance, what should you do if the
original ideas that you want to refer to are presented in another book
than the one you've read? Let's say that the author Holt
is summarizing works by Freud. Who should you refer to? The answer is that you have to show
that Freud's ideas were presented to you through Holt. Holt should be included
in your reference list or bibliography at the end of your paper. Of course, the best thing is
to read Freud yourself and make your own judgement
based on the primary source. So is there anything
you shouldn't refer to? Well, start by thinking of your readers. Who are they? You shouldn't have to refer to common
knowledge such as during what year the Second World War lasted. But be careful of using expressions
such as it is well known or similar since such a statement
might be met by criticism. It is important to refer to the material
that you have used in your own work because if you forget to do so,
you risk being accused of plagiarism, which is a form of cheating. If there aren't any
references in your text, your readers will assume that you have
come up with everything yourself. It is often quite obvious
when this isn't the case. And if you use another person's
work without referencing, this is easily detected. So be sure to clearly state whether
an idea, data, or fact is yours or someone else's. Even if you intend to use
your own previous work, it is important that you refer to it. You're not allowed to reuse
material without stating so. Exactly when should you make a reference? Well, there are several ways in which
you can refer to what you've used, either by quoting,
paraphrasing, or summarizing. When you quote someone, you use the exact
wording as the original source. You recognize a quote either by the
quotation marks surrounding the quote, or if it's a long quote, by making an indentation in the text which
is easily done by pressing the tab button. A quote should always be followed by
a reference including page number. Quotes are however used sparsely
in academic writing, and are mostly applied when you
want to stress a certain fact. Usually, the text is much easier to read when you paraphrase previous research
instead of quoting it word by word. Paraphrasing essentially means rewriting
material using your own words. This is a common way of incorporating
other people's work into your text. It shows to reader that you've
understood earlier research and found your own way to apply
it into your context. Another way to use previous
research is by summarizing. You can sum up an entire book or even the
whole body of work in just a few sentences in order to relate it to your own work. The difference between paraphrasing and
summarizing is that while paraphrasing refers to a smaller specific portion of
a source, summarizing presents an overview where you put the main ideas of say
a book or an author into your own words. No matter if you quote, paraphrase,
of sum up earlier research, this has to be made clear to your leaders, and
that is why referencing is so important. Good luck with your academic writing. [MUSIC]

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