استفاده از style sheet

 
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Hello, it's Cecilia again. This video will focus on what
is often called style sheets and how to use them in an effective way. The aim of the style sheet
is to ensure consistency in texts produced within
a certain context. This means that in our context the style
sheet outlines the requirements that you teacher or your department
poses on your writing. The same way if you write for
a journal or a publishing house, they will also have style sheets
outlining their preferred style. The main function of the style sheet is to
neutralise the presentation of the text to make sure that the way in which
it is packaged, doesn't distract the reader's attention from the argument
that the writer is trying to convey. The style sheet is also an instructional
text that will help you write your essay. Here I'd like to point out that in
university courses style sheets are not stand-alone documents but are often
directly linked with the grading criteria, so making sure your text follows the
guidelines will help you towards success. So what information can you expect
to find in an essay style sheet? Well, first of all it will usually
say something about format, expected length of your text, layout,
structure, and reference style. Much of this information is essential
all ready before you start writing as you can save time by planning and designing your text according to
the required format from the start. In other words, it's a good idea to
set your document to the expected type font and font size and to check if
you need to indent your paragraphs or if you should leave a blank
line in between them. The style sheet will also tell you
about line spacing and margins and if you should use full justification or
flush left in your text. Furthermore, it will stipulate what
kinds of section headings to use and how to format them. For instance, should you capitalize the
headings and do they need to be numbered? And if so, what format should you use? The style sheet might also tell
you if explanatory footnotes or endnotes can be used and if so, what kind of information they should
contain and how to format them? Depending on discipline, a style sheet
will also tell you about figures and figure captions as well as what
kinds of type styles to use. It's worth pointing out here that,
although different type styles are used quite freely in informal
writing to emphasize words or passages, in a formal academic style,
emphasis is conveyed by sentence structure rather than
by capital letters or boldface. Another thing you often findings style
sheet is how to use certain pronouns. For example it might tell you to
use gender inclusive language and avoid the use of "he" as a generic pronoun. A style sheet may also regulate
the use of I and we in the text. Some style sheet will tell you to use them
when you refer to yourself, the author, whereas others will tell you to
use alternative expressions. All the things I have listed are important
to be aware of before you start writing. But the style sheet will also
help you at the later stage because when you come to the revision
stage you can use it as a checklist. Going through all the items
of the style sheet again, you can check that you have punctuated the
entire document according to instruction, that all headings are formatted correctly,
that margins look okay, and that there are no missing indentations for
instance. As you see, a style sheet is very
much a kind of writers manual and using it should be
rather straightforward. However, there are some potential
stumbling blocks that you need to watch out for, and they don't necessarily have to
do with a particular information stated in the style sheet, but rather with the knowledge and
understanding of certain concepts that is needed in order to interpret
the style sheet correctly. This is the case when it comes to
discipline specific considerations. Although writing is a transferable skill in the sense that much of what you
learn about writing in one context or discipline will be useful as
you write in other contexts. For instance if you transfer from
one university department to another there will be differences in
requirements and in usage. This means that as a writer
you need to identify the discipline-specific requirements
that are common in the new discipline. Text structure and reference style
are often discipline-specific and also preferences regarding the use of
pronouns and the use of passive or active constructions. The style sheet will give information
on what reference style to use and it will probably present examples
from the required reference style or direct you to a manual or
online resource of that reference style. One thing that might pose
a challenge here is recognizing what kind of source you are using, as that will decide how you refer to it,
both in your text and in your bibliography. For instance, is the source you are using
an article from a scholarly journal or is it a chapter from an anthology? Text-wise, they may look
pretty much the same, but to get your references right, you must
know what type of source you are using, as the required data for
different types of sources will differ. To sum up, using a style sheet
requires certain skills - for non-native writers in particular, some of the terminology might be new. We therefore suggest that you look up new
words you encounter in this style sheet, so that you know exactly
what you are expected to do. Remember that if you
follow the style sheet, it will be easier for you to convey
your argument to the reader and your text will stand a better
chance when it is being assessed. [MUSIC]

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