ضمایر اول شخص و معلوم و مجهول

 
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Hi, this is Satu again. In this video, I'll talk about two
things that students often worry about. Namely, first person pronouns and
whether they should use the active or the passive voice in academic writing. Using first person pronouns like I may
seem to clash with the requirement that the style of writing should be objective. Being objective means that you must avoid
biased language and generalizations and that you shouldn't bring in your own
personal preconceptions and opinions. This doesn't necessarily mean that you
need to avoid using first person pronouns like I altogether. How acceptable it is to use
first person pronouns like I depends both on the discipline and
on the context. In many disciplines, it's perfectly
all right to use I most of the time. To find out what the conventions for
your own discipline are, you can just read a few articles written
by well-known authors in your field and see what they do. It's important to remember, however, that
overusing I, especially in combination with verbs like think and feel may
really make the text sound subjective so that it focuses on your personal feelings
and opinions rather than on facts. Avoiding first person pronouns like I
altogether is not a good solution either. As it can make the text sound very
vague in the sense that it's not clear who did what and
who carried out experiments and whose arguments are actually
being discussed. It's like no one takes responsibility for
what is said in the text. This is not something you want, of course,
so it's important to find a balance. Another problem that students often worry
about is choosing between the active and passive voice. In active sentences,
the subject is the agent or actor. In other words, the entity that does
something or causes something to happen. The queen in the sentence,
"the queen ate the cupcake", or the dog in the sentence,
"the dog bit the postman". In passive sentences, the subject is the entity that is
affected or undergoes the action. "The cupcake was eaten" or
"the postman was bitten by the dog". In most disciplines, the active voice
should be preferred when writing essays, because it makes the text a lot
easier to read and understand. But there are cases where you need to
think of what you want to say because the active and passive present the same
information from two different angles. An active sentence like,
"the Danes built this castle", tells you something about the Danes and
what they did, they built this castle. A passive sentence like, "this castle was built by the Danes",
tells you something about this castle. It was built by the Danes. Whether you choose the active or the
passive then boils down to the question of whether you want your sentence to be
about the Danes or about the castle. There are also a few cases
where the passive voice might be the best alternative. A sentence like, "the Lund Cathedral was built in
the 12th century", is natural because most people who live in Lund don't have
a clue who actually built the cathedral. You can't use the active because you
don't know who the agent or actor is. And in a sentence like,
"in the data collection, several mistakes were made",
you may want to be vague on purpose. Because you don't want the reader to
see right away that the agent actor is the same as you, the author, and that
it was you who made all those mistakes. Using the passive voice
is a good way to try and make this less clear without
actually being dishonest. [MUSIC]

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