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Hi, this is Satu again, and in this video, I'm going to talk
about editing and proofreading. Editing means that you're working
with a version of your essay that’s nearly completed, and
you try to improve its quality. You may work more globally
with the complete essay, or you may work with some part of it,
for example, a section or paragraph. The goal is try to make sure that
the contents of what you've written make sense, and that you've structured and presented the information
in the best possible way. You also try to make sure that
there are no contradictions and other flaws in your argumentation. Proofreading means that you check
a version of a text more locally for surface errors such as typos,
spelling mistakes, grammar mistakes, the choice of words, different word forms,
and other language problems. If you are a non-native speaker
of English, you also need to make sure that you've written your essay using
the appropriate register and style, and that you're consistent
throughout the essay. When you proofread, you also need to
check for things like punctuation and formatting. One more thing that you need to check at
this stage is how well you've managed to refer to other people's work. In other words, you need to decide if
the references to other people's work are in the right places within the running
text, if the same sources are also listed in the list of references
at the end of the essay, if the references are formatted
in the right sort of way. And more generally, how clear is it
to the reader what ideas discussed in your essay belong to others,
and what ideas are your own? It's a good idea to always proofread
what you have written as soon as you've written it so
the problems don't accumulate. Surface errors are usually easy to fix,
but if they're allowed to accumulate and there are lots of them in the final essay,
they will take a lot of time to fix. Many beginning writers think that editing
and proofreading is something they can do quickly on the night before they need
to hand in their essay for assessment. Experienced writers,
on the other hand, can sometimes spend 50% of the total writing time on
just editing and proofreading their text, and rewriting bits and
pieces of it, often a number of times. This is because experienced writers
have learned that having lots of errors in their text reflects badly on
the reader's image of them as writers. A lot of surface errors like typos and
spelling mistakes can make the reader doubt even the contents of the essay,
so they reject it as poor research. So basically, sloppy editing and proofreading can destroy
an otherwise good paper. But the opposite also holds. Careful editing and proofreading can
transform a mediocre first draft into a really good final essay. [MUSIC]

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