ویرایش و بازبینی سراسری

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This is Ellen again. In this video, I'll talk about editing and
revising texts on a global level. When we edit and revise an essay globally, we focus on the issues that require
us to see the bigger picture. This can mean looking at the entire
essay or some parts of it. For example, a section,
subsection, or paragraph. The emphasis is on issues
such as the thesis or focus of the essay, the target audience,
the overall structure and organization of the essay, and the
development of ideas and argumentation. Problems in these areas are tricky
as they may require major rewriting. Checking for the thesis, or focus of
the paper, means that you try to locate the sentence or sentences where
you tell the reader what the goal of the essay is going to be or what
the point is that you're trying to prove. Your audience should be
able this information in the introduction to your essay. It's often helpful to take a highlighter
pen and highlight these sentences so that you can see them clearly. If you can't find anything to highlight
then the reader won' t be able to see either what the focus of
the essay is meant to be. To avoid this, you need to revise
the introductory section or paragraph so it contains a clearly stated thesis. Once you've checked for
the thesis of focus and are confident that this
information is clearly stated, you need to check the contents
of the rest of the essay. You can start by thinking
about your target audience and what they already know or perhaps,
don't know about the topic. Information that you can expect
the target audience to already know doesn't need to be discussed in detail. So if you find chunks of text in the essay
that you think the audience is already familiar with, this can be background
information or definitions of terms for example. You'll need to think of ways to cut down
or even delete these chunks all together. Information that's new to the target
audience should be spelled out in some detail of course. And you should also aim give
references to previous work. This means that you need to look for
places in the essay where you need to be more specific or way you
may need to give more motivations and even add more examples that illustrate
the point that you're trying to make. The next thing to do when
you edit globally is check if all the ideas discussed in
the essay are related to the thesis or the focus that you just highlighted. And if they serve as evidence for
the thesis in the right sort of way. A good way to check for this is to
write a one sentence description of each section or paragraph that
follows the introductory section. and ask what the connection between
these one-sentence descriptions and the highlighted sentences really is. If the connection isn't
immediately obvious to you, then again it won't be clear
to your reader either. So you'll need to rewrite these
to make the connection clearer. Sometimes it helps to just
add transitional expressions. These are small words and phrases like
however, on the contrary, in addition, consequently, therefore,
on the other hand, and so on, that serve assigned pace to help the reader interpret
the information in the right sort of way. If you can't see any connection between
the one-sentence descriptions and the highlighted sentences,
even after you've tried to clarify this by rewriting the text or
by adding signpost I just talked about. You'll need to decide if the information
should be present in the essay at all or if you should just delete it. Sometimes actually deleting is the best
option however brutal that may feel. By the way, when I say delete,
you should note, of course, you should never delete anything
completely before you finish the essay. I, for example, always have
a separate document called, bits and pieces from section one, section two,
or something like that, where I move all the chunks I've just deleted in case
I need them later on after all. Sometimes, instead of actually
re-writing anything, you might also try to
move around the text, so the ideas you discuss start to
follow each other more naturally. And the connection they have to the thesis
or focus of the essay becomes clearer. Again, it's a good idea to look
at the one-sentence descriptions that you've written of the sections or
paragraphs and ask if the ordering which you present the
information actually makes sense to you. Or maybe you can think of a better
way to structure the discussion. Is it really the best way to structure the
discussion around the general to specific pattern for example, or would it make more sense to present
the information in some other order? You should also look for places where you
might just repeat the same thing several times, and decide if the repetition
is really necessary, or if it just confuses the reader and
takes up a lot of space. Repetition and references to something that you said
earlier can serve as signposts to help the reader see how things are related and
what's connected to what. But there's a difference between this and just saying the same thing several
times in a number of different places. One final thing you need to consider when
editing and revising an essay globally, is if you've paid enough attention to
the counter arguments that target readers might have and try to either to refute or
concede to these in the right sort of way. This is important to do as it
shows that you know the topic well enough to be able to think
of alternatives solutions and be able to identify the possible
strength and weaknesses of these. The goal of global editing and revision is
to produce a text with all the ideas and information clearly contribute
to the essay's thesis. We also want the text to provide enough
evidence for the claims that we make and want the discussion to proceed in
an organized and logical manner, so the target reader is able to see what is
connected to what, what follows from what, and where the discussion
is heading at all times. It's also important to make sure there
are no major flaws in argumentation. You don't, for example,
want to contradict yourself anywhere and you don't want to fall subject to any
of the common informal fallacies. These are common errors in reasoning. For example, assuming a false cause and
effect relationship, while basing claims on insufficient or
unrepresentative evidence. [MUSIC]

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