ویرایش سطح و لحن زبان

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Hello, this is Satu again. In this video, I'm going to talk about
editing and proofreading your text for register and tone. Register means the level of language use,
formal or informal for example. Choosing the right register means
choosing the right words and phrases, the right grammar,
the right way of spelling and the right punctuation for
the writing situation you're in. You don't write an e-mail to your friend
in the same way you write an e-mail to your professor, and e-mailing is
very different from how your write a job application or an academic essay. It's very similar to how you
change the way you speak when you talk to your grandmother as
opposed to when you talk to your friends. There are things you just wouldn't say and words you wouldn't use in
front of your grandmother. And if you use the grandmother
talk in front of your friends, they'll probably think you're mad. Another good analogy is how we dress. I'm dressed for
my part as a course instructor. But if I were to stand here in pajamas, you'd have a hard time taking
anything that I say very seriously. Tone means your attitude to the topic or the audience that's
noticeable in the text. If you're passionate about your topic, then your tone of writing may be
subjective and you may sound excited. And if you're not very knowledgeable about
your topic, then the tone of writing maybe hesitant and the target audience may find
it hard to be persuaded by what you say. When you edit and
proofread your essay for register and tone, you need to consider your text
in relation to a few basic questions. Firstly, why are you writing this text,
what is your purpose? Secondly, who are you writing the text to? Who is your target reader? And finally,
what kind of text are you writing? What is the genre? The answers to these questions help you
pick the right register and tone for the writing situation that you're in,
so you'll be able to identify and correct all words, phrases, grammar
choices, spelling, and so on that are not part of that particular
writing situation and try to fix them. So, what kind of writing situation are you
in when you write an academic essay? Well, you should always aim
at formal register, and a tone of writing that's clear, confident
and carries an undertone of respect. You want your target reader to get the
feeling that you know your topic well, and that you can argue for your own particular
point of view on the basis of facts without any attempt to ridicule or look
down on those who may not agree with you. The tone of writing
should also be objective, which means that you should avoid using
biased language and generalizations. And you shouldn't bring in your
own personal preconceptions or opinions about the topic. Whilst I was talking, you may have wondered what types of
concrete things you should watch out for when you edit and proofread your essay for
register and tone. Unfortunately, there's no simple
formula that you can follow in the same way as you probably wouldn't
be able to list all the things that you wouldn't say in front of your grandmother
and then just follow that list. In many cases, you just know what
is all right and what is not. The things that I'll talk about
in the rest of this video can hopefully serve as a kind of checklist
that you can follow when you edit and proofread your essay and
try to improve its quality. The first thing you need to watch out for
is the use of non-standard words and expressions. This means using spoken language forms
like granny instead of grandmother and SatNav instead of satellite navigator. This also means avoiding all dialectal or
sociolectal forms, which means words and expressions that are
only used in some parts of the country or by some specific social group. You obviously can't use any slang or
swear words in your essay, as these are not part of
formal academic register. Although most of what I've just said
may seem pretty obvious to you, it is a widely known fact that many
non-native speakers and writers have problems identifying what register set and
words and expressions belong to. Because they are non-native speakers and
writers, they can't rely on their intuitions, in the same way
as most native speakers can. If you are at all hesitant whether
something is formal enough to be used in an academic essay,
you'll need to consult a good dictionary, as dictionaries often have
comments about register too. So let's move on. In addition to non-standard words and expressions, you also need to watch
out for non-standard grammar. Some grammatical constructions
are typical of informal spoken language. While others are typical of some
particular dialect or sociolect, that is some particular geographical
region or social group. The sentence, "the king got real mad", sounds very different from the sentence,
"the king became very angry". So which of these sentences is more
suitable in an academic essay? Well it's the second one. The first sentence contains the verb "get",
which tends to very informal and the use of an adjective form "real" instead
of an adverb "really", or better yet "very". Finally, "mad" tends to be more spoken
language-like than the word "angry". Other grammar questions that
you may need to watch out for include the use of auxiliary verbs,
agreement between the subject and the verb, and the correct tense and
aspect for verbs. In other words,
you shouldn't use forms such as "I goes" or "she go" and you should know when you
should use the present tense and the past tense and when it's necessary
to use the -ing form of the verb. These are all topics that any good
grammar book can help you with, so it's a good idea to have one
available when you edit and proofread your text, so you can
quickly look up any suspicious cases. This leads us on neatly to the avoidance
of non-standard spellings, in other words, spellings that are not
found in a dictionary but are still commonly used in, for
example, Internet language. Think of, for example,
personal blogs and text messaging. You should also watch out for any
examples of non-standard punctuation and especially the use of exclamation marks. In fact, the exclamation mark is among
the least useful marks of punctuation in academic writing, and you should never
use more than one at any given time. Non-standard abbreviations and
acronyms such as "Satnav", "Mod con", "ASAP", "LOL" and so on, also don't
belong to formal academic register. Basically, all the gimmicks that work
well in, for example, personal blogs and text messaging aren't acceptable
in an academic essay. The same goes for
all smileys and other emoticons. None of these belong to
formal academic style. One tricky issue is the use of
contracted forms such as "isn't" and "can't" instead of "is not" and "cannot". In many cases, the use of contracted forms
is regulated by the essay guidelines or style sheet that you have
received from your teacher. Some teachers allow them, others don't. If the essay guidelines or
style sheet have nothing on this, then the safest bet is to use the full
form, that is to write "is not" and "cannot". And if you use the contracted forms,
then you of course need to make sure that you use them correctly and don't write
"your" when you should be writing "you're". After a good round of editing, your essay
text should be consistent all the way through in terms of register and
tone so that there are no bits and pieces that somehow stand out or
feel like they're in the wrong document. It's like in a job interview. You may have all the right qualifications,
but if you show up for the interview wearing pajamas or you call
the interviewer "dude" or use swear words to emphasize your points, you give the wrong
impression and you may not be hired. [MUSIC]

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