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This section gives the reader
the necessary background information. Defining on the type of the project or
report, the introduction can include statement of the problem or problems,
description of the main aim or aims, objectives, scope,
the parameters of the report. Review of previous work or
research in this area, and identification of their relationship between this
research and the current project. For example, you need to identify
the importance of the current project for a scientific knowledge or
commercial operations. An overview of the report's sections and
their relationship to the research problem, explanations of terminology if
necessary, method or methods of approach. Indications of scope and
limitations of the study, and finally, outline of material presented
in rest of the report. While there will be some duplication in
the contents of the executive summary and the introduction. The purpose of the executive summary
is to provide a summary of the findings of each section of the report. The purpose of the introduction however,
is to outline what the report will cover and how those issues address
the research problem. The body of the research. The body section expands and
develops the material in a logical and coherent manner, reflecting the structure
outlined in the introduction. It contains a description of the findings, it should also relate the findings
to any theory of relevance. The following questions are examples
of some of the types of questions the body of your report
should seek to answer. What were the most significant findings or
factors involved in topic or problem? Did the findings support the theory? Have you found some
disagreement with the theory? Did you uncover any unexpected or
new issues that need to be considered? This section is usually
the longest part of the report, so the material must be presented
logically to make it easier to read. The particular headings you use
to organize the introduction and the body of your report and
to make it logically, will depend on the purpose of
the report you are preparing. You should make sure the headings and
sub-headings you choose are informative. Research type reports may include
sections such as theory or modeling, methods and materials used, results,
comparisons of theory under all. And/or previous work, discussion,
and analysis of material. Speaking about the conclusion section, we may say that the conclusion
summarizes the major inferences that can be drawn from
the information presented in the report. It answers the questions raised
by the original research problem, or stated purpose, of the report and
states the conclusions reached. It also attempts to
show what it all means, the significance of the findings
reported and their impact. The conclusions, or conclusion,
presented in the report must be related to resulting from and justifiable by
the material which appears in the report. The conclusion must not
introduce any new material, it should report on all the conclusions
that the evidence dictates. As it is not the job of a conclusion to
gloss over conclusions that are puzzling, unpleasant, incomplete, or
do not seem to fit into your scheme. In the workplace, conclusions are quite
often read by managers before the main text of the report, and hence,
should summarize the main points clearly. This section also may include
reference to original aim or aims and the objectives of the report,
applications of the results. Limitations and advantages of
the findings, objective opinion, evaluation or judgement of the evidence. The conclusions may be
ordered in several ways. The main conclusion may
be stated first and then any other conclusions in
decreasing order of importance. Alternatively, it may be better
to organize the conclusions in the same order as the body
section was organized. Another strategy would be to present
the positive conclusions together, and then the negative conclusions. The organizational
strategy you use may vary, the important thing is
that it should be logical. The conclusion must arise from the evidence discussed
in the body of the report. It should not, therefore,
subjectively tell the reader what to do. This job is performed by
the recommendation section. Speaking about recommendations,
let me say that if required, recommendations should emerge from
the conclusions of the report. Recommendations should be feasible and
appropriate to the problem. For example, the cost should be realistic
to the budget, and they should be ethical. The recommendation section provides
your opinion on the course of action to be taken. You should not therefore hedge your bets
by recommending all possible actions. Sometimes, it may be the case that you
recommend that no action be taken as this, in your opinion,
it is the best course of action to take. Recommendations are written for action, so they should be as concrete and
specific as possible. They should read as a list of
things the client should do. They can be written in prose or
can be presented as bulleted information. Break each recommendation down into as
many component parts as seems logical. Let your reader know why
you're recommending inaction by supplying the reasons for your decision
drawn from the conclusions of the report. Include helpful and
useful information in your recommendation. Such as how to implement
the course of action suggested, or other sources of information
the reader may want to follow up. Recommendations should
usually be presented as a separate section from the conclusion. But sometimes, it is also appropriate
to combine them as separately labeled subsections in a conclusion and
recommendation section. Bibliography, it is essential to introduce
a reference list, a bibliography of the referenced material you consulted
during your research for the project. A bibliography is a list of
all the reference material you consulted during your research for
the report. While a reference list is a list of all
the references cited in the text of your report, listed in alphabetical
order at the end of the report. Each reference in the reference
list needs to contain all of the bibliographic
information from a source. You should also check with
your lecturer or tutor for any faculty guidelines or
referencing format. Or you should check the author's guide
if you're presenting your report for your clients in the workplace. Throughout the text of your report, you
will also need to provide references when you have included an idea in your report
which is not your own original idea. You don't need to reference an idea
however if it is common knowledge. For example, enzymes or proteins, or it has been established by
you in your experiment for example in scientific reports
reporting on an experiment. A reference is the bracketed or full noted piece of information
within the text of your writing that provides an acknowledgement that
you are using someone else's ideas. Appendix, information that is not
essential to explain your findings. But suppose your analysis,
especially repetitive or lengthy information validates
your conclusions or pursues a related point,
should be placed in an appendix. Sometimes excerpts from this
supporting information, for example, part of the data set,
will be placed in the body of the report. But the complete set of information,
for example, all of the data, set will be included in the appendix. Examples of information that could be
included in an appendix include figures, tables, charts, graphs of results,
statistics, questionnaires. Transcripts of interviews, pictures,
lengthy derivatives of equations, maps, drawings, letters, specification or
data sheets, computer program information. There is no limit to what can
be placed in the appendix, providing it is relevant and
reference is made to it in the report.

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