درک مخاطب و هدف

 
00:00 / 00:00
1.8x
1.4x
1.0x
0.7x
HD SD
HD
SD
اشتراک‌گذاری

×

گزارش خرابی

The writing process consists of five
steps, planning, drafting, revising, editing, and proofreading. The frustrating part of writing is
that these five steps are not linear. That is, at any step, you'll need to
go back and rethink all five steps. Remember to, that many of the documents
you produce will never truly be finished. Planning which can take
more than a third of th total time spent on the writing project. It's critically important for every document from an email
message to book like manual. Start by thinking about your audience,
because you need to understand whom you're writing to before you can figure out
you need to say about the subject. If you're lucky,
you can talk with the audience before and during your work on the document. These conversations can help you learn
what your reader has already know, what they want to know and how they would
like the information to be presented. You can test out drafts making
changes as you go everything. If you cannot consult your audience
while writing your document, you still need to learn everything
you can about your readers, so that you can determine the best scope of
organization and style for your document. Then for each of your most important readers try
to answer the following three questions. Who is the reader? Consider such factors, education,
job experience, their responsibilities, skilled in reading English, cultural
characteristics and personal preferences. What are your readers attitudes and
expectations? Consider the reader's attitudes toward
the topic in your message, as well as the reader's expectations about the kind
of documents you will be presenting. Why and
how would reader use your document?. Think about what readers
will do with the document. List some quotes in their physical
environment in which they will use it. The techniques they will
use it in reading it, and the tasks they will carry out
after they finish reading it. You cannot start to write until
you again state the purpose or purposes of the document. Ask yourself these two questions. After my readers have read the document,
what do I want them to know or do? What beliefs or
attitudes do I want them to hold? A statement of purpose might be as simple
as this, the purpose of this report is to recommend whether the company
should adopt a health-promotion program. Although the statement of purpose
might not appear in this form, in the final document you want to
state it clearly how to help you stay on track as you carry
out the remaining steps. Once you have a good idea of what
you already know about your topic, you must obtain the rest of
the information you will need. You can find and evaluate what other people have already
written by reading different books, scholarly books, articles, websites and
reputable blogs and discussion boards. In addition, you might compile new
information by interviewing experts, distributing surveys or
questionnaires, making observations, sending inquiries and conducting
experiment or different experiments. Don't forget to ask questions and
gather opinions from your own network of associates, both inside and
outside the organization. For technical documents, it's best
to turn to two kinds of people for help, subject-matter experts and
actual or potential users. Subject-matter experts can help you
determine whether your facts or explanations are accurate and appropriate. Both actual users of your existing
document and prosperous users of the next version of the document
can help you see problems you and other knowledgable readers do not notice. How do you learn from subject
matter experts, and from users, and prospective users? Here are a few techniques. Surveying, interviewing or observing
readers as they use the existing document. Interviewing subject matter experts
about the draft of the document. Conducting focus groups to learn users or prosperous users opinions about
an existing or proposed document. Uploading the document to
an online writing space, such as Microsoft SharePoint or Google Drive,
and authorizing people to revise it. It's important to revise old drafts
whether it's special important to revise draft documents that will be read
and used by people of other cultures. If your readers came from another culture try to have your draft reviewed
by someone from their culture. That reviewer can help you see whether
you have made correct assumptions about how readers will
react to your ideas and whether you have chosen appropriate
kinds of evidence and design elements. Having to revise and
make changes to its content and organization, it's time for you to edit. Editing is the process of checking the
draft to improve its grammar, punctuation, style, usage, word choice, and mechanics,
such as use of numbers and abbreviations. After editing, you should proofread your document to make
sure you typed what you meant to type. Remember that the spell checker and
grammar checker do not flag all errors. Although some writers can proofread
effectively on the screen, other prefer to print a copy of the text. These writers say that because
the text looks different on the page than it does on the screen, they're more
likely to approach it with fresh eyes as their eventual readers will and
therefore more likely to see errors. Regardless of whether you proofread on
screen or on paper, the process is no fun. But it is vital to produce in a clear, well written document that
reflects your high standards and understands or underscores your
credibility as a professional.

دانلود با کیفیت بالا
دانلود با حجم کم