جنس و تعداد

 
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[MUSIC] All nouns in Spanish are either masculine
or feminine, singular or plural. Nouns must agree with their articles and
adjectives in gender and number. In the case that a noun is the subject of
a verb, it also has to agree with the verb in terms of the number and
the person, first, second, or third. Most nouns that end in -o are masculine. And those that end in -a are feminine. There are a few exceptions,
but very, very few. For nouns ending in -e, or a consonant, you just have to memorize
the gender, there's no way of knowing. But there is a few clues. Noun suffixes, such as -dad,
-ción, are feminine. To make the plural form with nouns ending
in a vowel, -o, -a, or -e, just add an -s. Otherwise, you're going to need to add -es,
E-S, to the nouns ending in a consonant. For adjectives that end in the suffix -dor,
you have to make the plural by adding -es for the masculine form and
as for the feminine form. Mixed groups are always
considered masculine in Spanish. Rosa y Roberto son amigos. Here are some more examples. I'm going to give the singular first and then the plural. Casa bonita, casas bonitas. Año pasado, años pasados. Hombre trabajador, hombres trabajadores. Mujer trabajadora, mujeres trabajadoras. Spanish nouns almost always are
accompanied by a definite or an indefinite article, which also agrees in number and
gender with the noun that it refers to. So let's look at the definite articles. We have both a masculine and
a feminine form, a singular and a plural. So the masculine singular form is el,
and the plural form is los. The feminine form is la,
and the plural form is las. For the indefinite,
we have the singular masculine form un and the plural form unos. And for the feminine, we have
the singular una and the plural unas. Let's look at some examples. La casa bonita, and
in the plural, las casas bonitas. El año pasado, and
in the plural, los años pasados. And now with the indefinite article,
un hombre trabajador, and in the plural, unos hombres trabajadores. And another indefinite article,
but this time feminine, una mujer trabajadora, and in the plural,
unas mujeres trabajadoras. So keep an eye out for
this agreement business. It won't be easy, and it's going to
take you a number of years actually to do it fluently and without thinking. But remember, nouns always agree in gender and in number, and in some cases, if they're the subject of the sentence,
also in person with the verb.

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