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Present Perfect Tense:
Frequently Used Adverbs. Ever, never, yet and already. Hi Nicky! Hey Naomi! Hey, I was wondering. Have you ever been to Canada? I'm going there by myself next month. Well, yes I have. Actually, I go to Canada quite often to
see family, but I've never gone alone. Do you often travel alone? Well no, I haven't tried it yet. Next month will be my first time. It should be great. Canada is a very beautiful and safe place. I recommend going to Quebec City. It's my favorite city. Really? I wish I had spoken to you earlier. I've already purchased my
plane ticket to Vancouver. Yeah?
Well, Vancouver is great, too. In the conversation you heard the present
perfect tense used with different adverbs. Have you ever been to Canada? I've never gone alone. I haven't tried it yet. I've already purchased a plane ticket. Ever is used most often to make questions. Questions like have you ever been to
Canada, which is an affirmative question. But you can also make negative
questions using ever, like haven't you ever been to Canada,
using have with not. The negative question, like all negative
questions, just expresses surprise. But both forms of ever
are asking if you've ever experienced something
at some point in your life. Never is like the opposite of ever. It is used in statement form and it means you have not ever experienced
something at any time in your life. Like when Nicky says
I've never gone alone. Which means that she has never in
her life gone to Canada alone. Yet is like ever because it can
be used to form a question. But you can also use it to form negative
statements, like, I haven't tried it yet. Yet focuses on the idea that
there's an action not finished or completed but you believe you will. Naomi believes she will go to Canada and
travel alone. So she uses yet. I haven't tried it yet. Already can also be
used to form questions. But, the statements formed
are usually in the affirmative. Like when Naomi says,
I have already purchased a plane ticket. So, as we can see in this sentence,
already focuses on a finished action that
does not need to be done again. The action is done. Naomi does not plan to buy another ticket. Let's look at some more examples,
starting with ever and never, which are often used
together in conversation. Have you ever ridden an elephant? The grammatical structure here is,
have or has, plus the subject, plus ever. Then the past participle of the main verb. Have you ever ridden? If someone asked you this
question how would you answer? You could simply answer with, yes, I have, which just means, yes,
I have ridden an elephant. Or maybe your answer is, no, I haven't. And this just means, no,
I have never ridden an elephant. Notice where never is in the sentence. After the subject comes have or has,
and never plus the past participle. I have never ridden. Remember not to use, not and
never in the same sentence. They both make sentences negative. You only need one. Look at this fruit. It is a dragon fruit. Have you ever eaten dragon fruit? What is your answer? Yes, I have.
I have eaten dragon fruit. No, I haven't.
I have never eaten dragon fruit. I hope you didn't say,
I have not never eaten dragon fruit. That's two negatives. [SOUND] Are you ready for Yet and Already? Okay. Imagine your roommate saying,
have you brushed your teeth yet? It's time to go! Where is yet in the question,
it is at the end, that's right. If your answer is no,
you would simply say, no, I haven't brushed my teeth yet. If your answer is yes, you'd say,
yes, I've brushed my teeth. But if you want to show that
it's a finished action and you don't have do it again,
you can add already. You can add it between have and the past
participle or at the end of the sentence. You can say, I've already brushed my
teeth, or I've brushed my teeth already. We can go. Yet & Already. Let's look at a negative
question using yet. Haven't you finished your homework yet? It's time to go to bed. Remember, this negative
question expresses surprise. Surprise that the homework
is still not done. You might answer, no,
I haven't finished my homework yet. Okay, you have ten more minutes, or
yes, I've already finished my homework, or yes, I've finished my homework already. Good then get ready for bed. Here's a quick review. Try answering this question. Have you ever climbed a mountain? What am I asking? I'm asking if at any time in your
life you have climbed a mountain. Like this man. Perhaps your answer is. Yes, I have, it was amazing. Or maybe you're thinking, no, I haven't,
I've never climbed a mountain, but I hope to some day. Okay, what about this question,
have you done the laundry yet? You might say, no, I haven't done
the laundry yet, I'll do it later. Or, you could be thinking, yes,
I've already done the laundry. Yes, I've done the laundry already. All right.
Now you can go ask people lots of questions using ever,
never, yet and already. Thanks for listening.

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