کمیت‌سنج‌ها- 4

00:00 / 00:00


گزارش خرابی

In this video, 
I'd like to focus on common mistakes that are made when using quantifiers. 
Let's begin with a quick exercise. 
See if you can identify the mistakes in the following statements.
How many sleep did you get last night?
My little sister got much candy on Halloween.
I will have some of rice.
Let's talk. 
I have little time. 
Can you see where the mistakes are? 
All right, let's discuss each one and let's begin with this statement. 
How many sleep did you get last night? 
Well, sleep is a non-count noun. 
So many cannot be used with sleep. 
What you would say is, how much sleep did you get last night?
The other option is to keep many and to make sleep countable by adding hours of. 
How many hours of sleep did you get last night?
Okay, so the key thing is to remember to study which nouns are count and non-count so you'll know which quantifiers to use with them and 
you won't make this kind of mistake.
Let's look at another example before we move on to mistake number two. 
Come to the birthday party with me, Alex!
In response, Alex wants to say that he can't go to the party because his teacher gave him a large quantity of homework.
Would it be okay for Alex to say, I can't, my teacher gave us many homework?
Well, remember, homework is a non-count noun.
So actually, no, he can't use many with homework.
Many is used with count nouns. 
So you can say, I can't, my teacher gave us many homework assignments. 
This would be correct because assignments is a count noun and in this statement, homework is now an adjective.
Okay, let's move on to mistake number two. 
My little sister got much candy on Halloween. 
You maybe thinking, well, candy is a non-count noun and much is used with non-count nouns, so what's the problem? 
The issue is, used in affirmative statements, much sounds very formal.
In everyday conversations, you can use a lot of instead of much. 
My little sister got a lot of candy on Halloween.
Okay, so try to remember that much sounds natural in negative statements and questions, but not in affirmative statements.
Let's look at this example again.
Remember, much in affirmative statements sounds too formal, so it wouldn't be ok for Alex to say, I can't, my teacher gave us much homework.
Much can be used in forming, as I said, questions like, how much research do you have to do, or negative statements like, I do not have much research to do. 
But in affirmative statements, it's better to use a lot of instead of much. 
So Alex could say, I can't, my teacher gave us a lot of homework.
The third type of mistake can be shown in this statement.
I will have some of rice. 
Perhaps you're thinking there's an extra word here.
I will have some rice. 
But now let's talk about why it's incorrect to have of here. 
Well, it actually depends on whether the noun is being used as a non-specific or 
specific noun.
If the noun is non-specific, then of needs to be taken out. 
However, if the noun is a specific noun, then you must add "of" with a determiner after it.
Commonly, we use the. 
I will have some of the rice. 
But there are other determiners you can use, such as possessive nouns and pronouns, such as mom's or her. 
I will have some of her rice. 
You can also use demonstrative pronouns such as this or that. 
I will have some of that rice. 
So again, remember to put these determiners after of. 
And remember that determiners show the noun is a specific noun. 
Okay, but you need to be careful because some quantifiers always use of.
These are set phrases such as a lot of, lots of, and plenty of, which can be use with both count nouns and non-count nouns. 
A couple of and a number of, which can be used with only count nouns. 
A bit of, a small amount of, and a great deal of, which can be used with only noncount nouns. 
These phrases can be used with non-specific nouns or 
with specific nouns following a determiner. 
Let's look at some examples. 
We need a lot of volunteers to help us.
Notice that volunteers comes right after the set phrase a lot of, because volunteers here is a non-specific noun.
Versus, we need a lot of the volunteers that helped us last time.
Let's use a bit of. 
A bit of motivation can keep me going. 
Versus, a bit of the motivation my mother gave me kept me going. 
Again, if you're using a specific noun, 
make sure to use a determiner after the set phrase and before the specific noun.
Now, with these other quantifiers that are not part of set phrases, you would have to add of plus the determiner.
Let's look at an example.
First, with a non-specific noun, then a specific noun. 
Sarah has traveled to many countries. 
Versus, Sarah has traveled to many of the countries her grandfather told her about. 
Great, so remember, some quantifiers need of plus a determiner with specific nouns.
Now let's talk about the last type of common mistake. 
Here's a statement. 
Let's talk. 
I have little time. 
This statement doesn't make sense. 
You would need to say, let's talk, I have a little time.
Because there's a huge difference between using little and a little. 
And remember, these words are used with non-count nouns. 
Okay, so without a, this statement emphasizes not many. 
Whereas with a, the statement emphasizes having some. 
Here's an example.
I have little time.
Well, let's talk later.
If you just use little without a, 
that means that you really don't have much time. 
Whereas when you use a and say, let's talk, I have a little time, that means that you have some time to talk. 
Few versus a few is similar, except few and a few are used with count nouns. 
Now let's look at this in a different context.
Hi Tim! 
How's the job hunt going?
Not good. 
There are few job openings I'm qualified for. 
There are a few job openings I'm qualified for. 
Do you see the difference? 
Of course, when Tim says, not good, 
there are few job openings, he is saying that there are not many.
Versus, when he says, good, there are a few job openings, which means that there are some. 
He's being positive here.
Okay, so remember, a little and little, a few and few, actually have opposite meaning.
Well, it's been fun. 
You've learned a lot about quantifiers in these last four videos.
Keep practicing and thanks for watching.

دانلود با کیفیت بالا
دانلود با حجم کم