Hi and welcome to confusing adjectives and adverbs.
In this lesson, we will discuss adjectives and adverbs that are similar in meaning.
So let's look at some adjectives and adverbs that are similar in meaning, but are used differently in English.
So first, let's look at every and each.
Every is an adjective used when the focus is on the larger group while each is actually a determiner that focuses on individual items or people, both words go single count nouns and singular verbs.
So for example, every student purchased a textbook focuses on the whole class of students purchased a textbook.
With each, we could say, it is important to read each question on the test carefully.
Emphasizing each single question must be read carefully none should be skipped.
So, what do you want to focus on?
The group or the individual?
That is up to you when you are speaking or writing, just keep in mind that every
emphasizes the whole group and each emphasizes the individual.
Also remember that when you use each and every, you need to follow it with a singular count noun and singular verb.
Farther and further are another pair of confusing adverbs.
Farther comes from the word far meaning a long distance, but further relates to non-physical distance, either metaphorical or figurative type of language.
With farther, we can have a sentence a plane can travel farther than a car.
Meaning, a plane travels more distance than a car can.
But with further as in if you have further questions, email them to me is more figurative.
Meaning, more questions not physical distance.
So, which one do you use if you aren't sure whether you are talking about distance or not?
In this sentence, my friend is farther along in the book than I am.
We need to ask ourselves can we use distance to describe the pages in a book?
Or is it, my friend is further along in the book than I am.
We ask, do we mean the number of pages in a figurative sense?
When you aren't sure, further is safer to use in these cases.
Here are three adjectives that are related, but are different in meaning.
Last means most recent in the past or could mean the opposite of first when there are several things happening, but latter means the opposite of former when you have a choice between things and latest means recent or newest.
With last, we can say, last night I went to an interesting lecture about the future of biotechnology.
Meaning, the most recent past night or when we have a list of things.
First, I need to go to the store. Then, I have to to pick up my dry cleaning.
Last, I have to pick up my children from school.
Last is the final action in a series of events.
But with latter, we need a choice between two or more things.
For instance, person A says, we can go see the new super hero movie or a romantic comedy.
And person B could respond, well, I want to see the former, but you probably want to see the latter.
The former means the first choice and the latter means the second or last choice.
With latest, you may have heard for the latest news and traffic, turn to channel, on television.
This means the information is recent.
High and tall are both adjectives, but high means distance from the ground, usually wide items and can not be items and cannot be used for people or animals.
But tall is a measure of height for narrow vertical items and can be used for people and animals.
So for example, we could say, planes travel high above the ground, so they can go fast not tall above the ground.
But we need to say, Burj Khalifa Tower is a very tall hotel in Dubai not high hotel.
Ill is an adjective that refers to especially long-term physical or mental disease, or meaning bad.
It's rarely followed by a noun such as with ill health.
Most often, you will see it followed by an adjective such as ill prepared or ill advised or after a linking verb such as the girl is ill.
Sick is an adjective that refers to a physical illness, usually short-term.
So we can say, Margo has been ill for several years.
Meaning, long-term physical disease.
But with sick we can say, John had to stay home today with his sick child.
Meaning that the illness is temporary.
We expect John's child to recover soon.
Deadly and fatally can be confusing, but deadly is an adjective.
Meaning, to cause death.
And as with most adjectives, it can be followed by a noun, but fatally is an adverb.
Meaning, to cause death and needs to be next to a verb.
The adjective form is fatal.
In the sentence, a deadly crash closed all lanes of the freeway.
Means the crash, a noun, caused deaths.
But the owner was fatally shot during a robbery.
Means the act of being shot, a verb is what caused the death.
But we cannot say, deadly shot with the same meaning.
But there are also some adjectives and adverbs that are similar in form, but are very different in use.