استفاده از نقل قول

 
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[MUSIC PLAYING] SPEAKER: In the last lesson, we practiced identifying appropriate supporting details. Oftentimes, you'll want to pull ideas or information from scholarly publications to use as supporting details for a university course assignment. You'll want to make sure that you properly give credit to any sources that you reference in academic writing. We do this by using citations. Citations signal to your reader that some material in your writing came from another source or another author. They also tell your reader the information they'll need to find that source again for their own purposes. Most commonly, we find citations at the end of a paper on a works cited page. This is a special page you'll need to include as part of your writing when you've used ideas or data from another person's work to support your own. There are several different formats for writing bibliography citations correctly, and the method you'll use depends on the class for which you're writing. Today, we'll take the time to talk about two of the most common citation formats or styles, MLA and APA. MLA, which stands for the Modern Language Association, is generally used for humanities courses. APA, an abbreviation for the American Psychological Association, is often used in social sciences. Most likely, you'll have to use both of these citation styles in your general education course requirements. Generally speaking, writing citations isn't difficult. There are specific formulas you'll follow for organizing the source information, depending on the type of source and whether you follow MLA or APA. Let's take a look at some of the most common source types and how you would organize information for an end-of-text citation under both styles. Let's begin with a website page. On the screen, you'll see two citations. Both of them are
for the same source. But one is an APA, and one is an MLA. The main difference between the two formats here has to do with the title of the website page. You'll notice, in MLA, the title starts with quotation marks and ends with quotation marks. However, in APA, the title does not have quotation marks at all. Here's an example of a scholarly journal article. Again, the source is the same, but one citation is done in APA. And the next is done in MLA. We see the same difference we just mentioned about quotation marks around the title of the journal article. Here it is an MLA, while APA does not have this. Another key difference between the two formats has to do with, again, the title of the journal article. In APA, the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle are capitalized. However, in MLA, you capitalize every word in the title of the journal article. Finally, here is an example of a book citation. We see the same difference with capitalization in the titles for this format as well. APA capitalizes the first word in the book title and the first word in the subtitle. MLA capitalizes every word in the book title. Another place you'll commonly see a form of citations is inside a piece of writing. These are called "in-text citations." You'll notice they're much shorter than an end-of-text citation. This is because they always correspond to a full end-of-text citation. Just like end-of-text citations, in-text citations follow a general formula as well. Generally speaking, we include the source information at the end of a sentence or paragraph which came from someone else's work. It should go in parentheses right before the period. In APA format, we use the author's last name followed by a comma and then the year, like this. If you're already mentioning the author's last name in your paper, it's OK to just include the year that the source was published in parentheses immediately after the last name. Here's an example of that. Also, if you're directly quoting someone, add the page number to the end of the in-text citation. The format for in-text MLA citations is incredibly similar. Generally, use the author's last name followed by the page number from which your information came. Don't separate this with a comma. Here's an example. If you've already mentioned
the author's last name in your paper, just include the reference to page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence before the period. Citing sources can seem daunting, but with practice, it will become easier. Whenever you're not sure if something should be cited, be cautious and cite sources. For more examples of
citations in APA and MLA, including in-text citations, read the information accompanying this lesson
and download the handout below the video from the Purdue Online Writing Lab, a great resource for help with formatting academic writing. Finally, it's important to know that citation styles tend to change every few years or so. Always make sure that you're using the most updated version.

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