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[MUSIC PLAYING] SPEAKER: Plagiarism is a term you're going to hear quite often during your studies at an American University. If you aren't already familiar with its definition, plagiarism is essentially claiming someone else's work or ideas as your own without giving the original author due credit. In the United States, plagiarism
is taken very seriously. It's actually considered theft at universities and colleges because the student has
stolen someone else's intellectual property. There can be very serious academic consequences for a student who chooses to plagiarize. this is not meant to scare you. We want you to have a successful academic career. Learning how to identify and prevent plagiarism will be valuable skills in reaching this goal. So what exactly is
considered plagiarism? Here are a few common examples from plagiarism.org that can be found at the university or college level. Turning in someone else's work as your own, copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit, failing to put a quotation in quotation marks, giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation, changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit, and finally, copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether or not you give credit. Now that we have a better understanding of plagiarism, let's talk about how to avoid it. There are three main strategies you can use to avoid plagiarism. Let's start with the easiest. Always turn in original work. If you always turn in your own original writing for every assignment during your university career, you'll never have to worry about plagiarism. However, we know that it can add credibility to your writing if you're able to include in comment on ideas from experts in your field. This brings us to strategies number 2 and 3. Cite your sources and paraphrase. You'll learn quite a lot about citing sources next week, so we'll spend our time today discussing paraphrases. Paraphrasing is the act of rewriting someone else's work in your own words, while giving credit to the original author. This may sound like a summary, but paraphrases are more specific than summaries. They are restatements of specific quotations or pieces of information rather than a whole text or a large part of a text. Also, summaries are usually shorter than the original text, while paraphrases are roughly the same length. While summarizing skills will certainly help you write paraphrases, there are a few other techniques you should use. Keep in mind a good paraphrase will use more than one of these techniques. Number one, use synonyms. Take a second to look at the two examples on our screen. The one on the top is the original text, and underneath, we have a paraphrase. You will see that in the paraphrase many of the words used in the original have changed to synonyms or words with similar meanings. For example, argues become stated. Catastrophic effects becomes serious negative impact. And worldwide became global. Technique number two. Change word forms. For example, change a noun to a verb. In our original and paraphrase on the screen right now, you'll see several examples of this. For instance, the word
motivation, a noun, becomes motivated, an adjective. Success, also a noun, becomes succeed, which is a verb. And finally, acquisition, which is a noun, becomes acquiring, which is a gerund. Technique number three. Change quoted speech to indirect speech, or vise-versa. In our example on the screen, you'll see that there is a direct quote in the original text. It's much better to do good in a way that no one knows anything about it. In our paraphrase, this has become indirect speech. There are two ways we know this. First, in the original with the direct quote, you'll see a present tense verb, writes, followed by the quotation. In the indirect speech example, this verb has changed to simple past and the quote is preceded by that. Technique number four, rearrange the grammatical structure of the sentence. You'll notice in these examples that a dependent clause from the original has moved to the front of the sentence in the paraphrase. Number five. Find alternative ways to restate numbers or percentages. In our examples on the screen, we have a few different instances of this. For example, "dropped 18%," has become "dropped more than 15%." The meanings here are very similar. Additionally, "from 2008 to 2018," has become "over the last 10 years." Finally, change from active voice to passive voice or vise-versa. Our original source text on the screen is written in active voice. We know this because it follows a typical active sentence structure. Our subject is first, followed by a verb, and an object. Our paraphrase has been changed into passive voice. We know this is passive voice because we see a past tense of the verb to be followed by a past participle written. Another common sign of passive voice are by phrases, so that we can still include information about the subject from the original. And in this example,
here is our by phrase. Identifying and preventing plagiarism are skills that you will improve over time with practice. Also, remember that you can always ask your professor or the writing center on campus when you're not sure if something you've written is considered plagiarism. Practice identifying and preventing plagiarism with the paraphrases in the activity after this video.

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