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INSTRUCTOR: Today we're going to talk about determining the purpose, structure, and main idea of a text. Common purposes in academic writing include to describe or inform, to persuade, to analyze, or to evaluate. You can often determine the purpose depending on the type of text you are reading. Next, we're going to go through some common academic text types and their corresponding organizational structure. Textbooks are
written for students and designed to inform. Textbooks are ideal for introductory learning or reading about
a topic for the first time. Textbooks are organized into chapters with subsections. Each subsection has a
heading, and the headings tell us a little bit about what that section is about. Also, each chapter usually
has an image or a graphic that helps to illustrate, exemplify, or elaborate on points from the text. It's helpful to recognize the organizational structure of a textbook in order to help you take notes and see relationships between ideas. Essays are shorter pieces of writing focused on a particular theme or thesis. They can inform, persuade, analyze, or evaluate information. In academic courses, you will commonly read argumentative essays that have the purpose of persuading. Essays are organized into paragraphs, and they begin with an introduction. At the end of an introduction paragraph is a thesis statement, and this thesis statement states the overall main idea of the essay. Next, body paragraphs support the thesis. 

And then finally, there is a conclusion, and the conclusion summarizes the main points of the essay. And an essay may end with a works cited page. Research articles are reports of original research conducted by an expert in a field. They are usually published in a scholarly journal and written for a specific audience. The purpose of a research article is to inform the reader and evaluate research that was done by other scholars. Research articles tend to follow a very similar format regardless of the topic. They begin with an abstract. The abstract summarizes the paper. And this is followed by an introduction. The introduction gives
background information and introduces research questions.

Next comes the literature review. A literature review reflects on other research that is related to the
topic in the article. Next, the author writes about the methods or the process they use to conduct
the research. 
After that, there is a section about the results of the research. 
And after the results, the author writes about how the results apply to the field of study and recommendations for future research. The author will also include a list of references and sometimes an appendix of related materials. You can see that each section begins with a heading so that the reader can very clearly and quickly find the section they want to focus on. Practice these active reading strategies throughout our course.

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