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[MUSIC] Depending on the kind of writing and
the discipline in which it sits, different kinds of levels of evidence
will presented for you to examine. Evidence is not the same as proof. Proof is similar to mathematical proofs,
of which it is either right or wrong. Evidence can be weak or fake. There is no proof in science. Proof is for mathematics. You cannot prove anything in
science through a certainty, though you can disprove a lot. All scientific theories are tentative and
subject to revision. Even the law of gravity
is subject to revision. And in fact was revised by Einstein's
general theory of relativity. Science is about evidence. Evidence is the result of
a structured scientific experiment or observation that supports
the claims of a theory. In order to be useful,
a different outcome for the experiment or observation must be
able to falsify or disprove the theory. Scientific evidence is evidence
which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis. Such evidence is expected to be empirical,
and its interpretation is in accordance
with the scientific method. Standards for scientific evidence vary
according to the field of inquiry. But the strength of scientific evidence,
is generally based on the results of statistical analysis, and
the strength of scientific controls. All that you read can be
considered as evidence. For example, the report of the context within which
the data were collected or created. The choice of the methods for
the data collection or selection. The decisions made and
the steps in the analysis process. The rationale for the interpretations
made and the conclusion drawned. The relevance of the theoretical
perspective, ideology or philosophy that this
underpinned the argument. On its own, evidence cannot
contribute to academic debate. The interpretation and presentation
of bad evidence within an argument, allows the evidence to
make a contribution. The term argument in this context means
the carefully constructed rationale for the research, and for the place of its
results within the academic arena. Arguments explain, for example, why the authors considered
what they did was worthwhile. Why it was done in that particular way. Why the data collected, or the material
selected, were the most appropriate. How the conclusions drawn, linked to
the wider context of their inquiry. Even in the most technical and
scientific disciplines, the presentations of argument, will always involve elements
that can be examined and questioned. For example,
you would ask why did the writer select that particular topic of
inquiry in the first place? Why did the writer decide to use
that particular methodology, choose that specific methods, and
conduct this work in that way? Why did the writer select that
particular process of analysis? What does evidence look like? Evidence may appear as direct quotations,
paraphrased ideas, other authors' ideas
rephrased into your own work. Statistics and other information gathered
from external sources such as tables, charts, or figures. The types of evidence you use may
also depend on your field of study. For example, statistical, also called
empirical evidence, may be appropriate for a research publication, but less so
for an English literature paper. In turn, a poetry quotation may
not be appropriate evidence for a scientific paper. So where do you find evidence? Credible evidence,
evidence which is trustworthy or plausible, comes from credible sources. For instance peer reviewed academic
journals that employ topic experts with PhDs whose job is to scrutinize and
critique research publications. Also, if you refer to websites for
evidence, do so with caution because there are very few,
if any quality control measures to ensure the credibility
of web published information. Choose your evidence sources carefully and
with a critical eye. Always select the most recent evidence, especially in fields of study in
which knowledge advances rapidly. For example, national economy statistics
may be updated annually or even monthly. Broadly speaking,
recent research is typically regarded as that which has been published
within the last three years. But this definition does not suggest you
should always ignore all the evidence. Especially if it represents the most
written evidence on your topic. All the evidence is acceptable in
any context or in many contexts. For instance, many scholars may use decades old
milestone research as evidence, because it is still considered the gold standard
of this particular field of study.

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